State Council

Guiding Opinions concerning Further Perfecting Structures to Restrain Trust-Breaking and Building Long-Term Mechanisms for Sincerity Construction

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GBF No. (2020)49

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

In order to deeply implement the requirements of the Party Centre and the State Council concerning enhancing sincerity construction, earnestly implementing the “Regulations on Optimizing the Commercial Environment” and other such relevant regulations, further clarify the scope of credit information, impose punishment for trust-breaking according to laws and regulations, perfect credit recovery mechanisms for untrustworthy subjects, and raise the rule of law and standardization levels of social credit system construction, with the approval of the State Council, the following Opinions are hereby put forward.

I, General requirements

With Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era as guidance, comprehensively implement the spirit of the 19th Party Congress and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Plenums of the 19th Party Congress, firmly take seeking progress in stability as a general foundation for work, firmly follow rule of law tracks, strive to build long-term mechanisms for sincerity construction, further standardize and complete mechanisms for the establishment, recording, collecting, sharing, publication, punishment and credit recovery of untrustworthy acts according to the general thinking lines of acting according to laws and regulations, protecting rights and interests, exercising caution and moderation, and checklist-based management, push the social credit system to enter a new phase of high quality development, let the social credit system play an even more positive role in supporting “release, management, service” reform and the transformation of government functions, creating a fair and sincere market environment and social environment.

In the process of advancing and practically exploring social credit system construction work, we must grasp the following important principles: first, strictly act according to laws and regulations, the recording to untrustworthy acts, determining name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects and punishment for untrustworthiness, and other such matters affecting the direct rights and interests of related individuals, enterprises and all other kinds of subjects, must be handled strictly along rule of law tracks. Second, define scopes accurately, accurately determine the assessment scope for credit information and name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects, reasonably handle punishment measures for untrustworthiness, firmly prevent improper application and even abuse. Third, ensure punishment is matched to the error, implement different kinds and different degrees of punitive measures strictly according to the law, respectively according to the area in which the untrustworthy act took place, the gravity of the circumstances, the extent of its impact, etc, and ensure the lawful rights and interests of credit subjects are protected. Fourth, lean from international experiences, both act on the basis of our country’s national circumstances, and fully consider international precedents, advance social credit construction cautiously in areas of high social attention, where understandings are not yet in agreement, and push related measures to link tracks internationally.

II, Scientifically determine the scope and processes for public credit information entry

(1) Clearly determine the scope for public credit information. The entry of information on particular acts held by public bodies and organizations authorized by laws and regulations to have public affairs management functions, etc. (hereafter jointly named administrative bodies) into public credit information must be strictly based on laws, regulations or Party Centre and State Council policy documents, and a catalogue system implemented to manage it. The leading work unit of the Interministerial Joint Conference for Social Credit System Construction (hereafter simply named Interministerial Joint Conference) compiles and regularly renews a basic nationwide public credit information catalogue according to laws and regulations, and together with relevant departments, the Interministerial Joint Conference’s member work units and other relevant departments may, according to laws and regulations, put forward suggestions for information to be entered into the catalogue, the Interministerial Joint Conference’s leading work unit combs through them and collects a catalogue, solicits opinions from all localities, all relevant departments and related market subjects, sectoral associations and chambers of commerce, legal service bodies, exports, scholars and the social public, and after submission to the Interministerial Joint Conference for deliberation, [the catalogue] is published to society and its implementation organized. All localities may, on the basis of local regulations, and with reference to the formulation procedure for the basic nationwide public credit information catalogue, formulate supplementary public credit information catalogues suited to that locality.

(2) Strictly standardize bases for determining untrustworthy acts. Administrative bodies determining untrustworthy acts must have a document with legal validity as basis. The bases on which an untrustworthy act may be determined include: valid judicial judgment documents or mediation letters, documents on decisions of administrative acts such as administrative punishments, administrative arbitration, etc, as well as other documents where laws, administrative regulations or other Party Centre and State Council policy documents provide they may act as a basis for a basis determining an untrustworthy act. After administrative bodies determine an untrustworthy act, they shall truthfully record the untrustworthy act.

III, Standardize the scope and process for public credit information sharing and openness

(3) Standardize the scope and process for public credit information sharing. Whether public credit information may be shared or in which scope it may be shared, shall be determined on the basis of the principles of legality and necessity, and determined at the time where public credit information catalogues are compiled. Perfect credit sharing mechanisms, promote the interaction and interconnection, and data sharing between the Nationwide Credit Information Sharing Platform, the National Enterprise Credit Information Publication System as well as relevant departments’ credit information systems, collecting departments must be clarified for data that may be shared, ensuring that “what is collected in one window, is fully shared”.

(4) Determine the scope for publication of public credit information according to laws and regulations. Whether public credit information may be published, shall be determined on the basis of the principles of legality and necessity, and determined at the time where public credit information catalogues are compiled. Public credit information publication may not infringe commercial secrets and personal privacy, where laws and regulations provide otherwise, those provisions are followed. Where information related to an individual is published, the basis in law, regulation, State Council decision or degree must be clarified or the individual in question must consent, and the necessary desensitization must be performed.

(5) Strengthen comprehensive management of public credit information publication channels. Departments determining public credit information shall, according to government information openness and other relevant regulations, publish the related information on that department’s portal website, all levels’ governments’ portal websites or other appointed websites. The “Credit China” website, and the National Enterprise Credit Information Publication System must, according to relevant regulations, conduct uniform publication of public credit information that is collected and shall be published, consistency is to be maintained on the content and time period of publication with the department determining public credit information.

IV, Standardize determination standards and procedures for name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects

(6)  Strictly limit the areas and scopes for the institutions of name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects. Areas where a name list of gravely untrustworthy subjects ins instituted, must have a basis in laws, regulations or Party Centre or State Council policy documents, no department (work unit) may increase or expand them without authorization. The scope of the institution of name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects is to be limited strictly to subjects responsible for grave harm to the physical health and life safety of the popular masses, gravely harm fair market competition order and regular social order, refuse to carry out statutory duties with grave influence on the credibility of judicial bodies and administrative bodies, refuse to implement national defence duties and other such grave unlawful and untrustworthy acts, according to the provisions of the “State Council Guiding Opinions concerning Establishing and Perfecting Joint Incentive Structures for Trust-Keeping and Joint Punishment Structures for Untrustworthiness, and Accelerating the Construction of Social Sincerity” (GF No. (2016)33).

(7) Strictly standardize determination standards for name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects. For name list systems of gravely untrustworthy subjects implemented at the national level, the name list determination standards shall be determined in the form of laws, administrative regulations or Party Centre or State Council policy documents, those temporarily not meeting conditions may be determined by the competent (supervision) department of the area in question through departmental rules, for determination standards, the opinions of the Interministerial Joint Conference leading work unit and other relevant departments, related market subjects, sectoral associations and chambers of commerce, legal service bodies, experts, scholars and the social public shall be fully solicited, the period of public opinion solicitation shall not be less than 30 days. Determination standards shall be published through the “Credit China” website and websites appointed by the competent (supervision) department. Determination standards shall, at the same time, clarify conditions and procedures to leave the name lists as well as relief measures. Departments formulating determination standards shall regularly organize third-party assessment of the outcome of standards implementation and timely revise them. For name list structures for gravely untrustworthy subjects only implemented on a local scale, name list determination standards shall be provided in departmental regulations.

(8) Strictly implement determination procedures for name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects. Administrative bodies shall, before making determination decisions about name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects, notify the party concerned about the grounds and basis for the decision, and the rights the party concerned has according to the law; where the party concern raises an objection, this shall be verified and feedback made on the outcome within stipulated time limits. To list a market subject on a name list for gravely untrustworthy subjects, the determining department shall rely on corresponding administrative decision documents, bearing the grounds, basis, untrustworthiness punishment measure notes, withdrawal conditions and procedures as swell as relief measures, when necessary, it is also permitted for the determining department to produce a stand-alone determination decision document about name lists for gravely untrustworthy subjects. In principle, name lists for gravely untrustworthy subjects shall be determined by relevant departments of county-level and higher (including county-level) People’s Governments according to related standards, where laws, regulations and departmental rules provide otherwise, those provisions are followed.

V, Imposing punishment for untrustworthiness according to laws and regulations

(9) Determining punishment measures for untrustworthiness according to laws and regulations. Punitive measures reducing rights or adding to duties of untrustworthy subjects must be based on the facts of the concrete untrustworthy act, directly cite laws, regulations , or Party Centre or State Council policy documents as a basis, ad implement name list structure management. The work unit leading the Interministerial Joint Conference will, together with relevant departments, compile and regularly renew a nationwide basic list of punishment measures against untrustworthiness according to laws and regulations, member work units of the Interministerial Joint Conference and other relevant departments may, on the basis of laws and regulations, put forward suggestions on punitive measures for untrustworthiness to be included in the list, the work unit leading the Interministerial Joint Conference combs through them and collects a general list, solicits opinions from all localities, all relevant departments and related market subjects, sectoral associations and chambers of commerce, legal service bodies, experts, scholars and the social public, and after submission to the Interministerial Joint Conference, publishes [the list] to society and organizes implementation. All localities may, on the basis of local regulations, and with reference to the procedure for the formulation of the basic nationwide list for punitive measures against untrustworthiness, formulate supplementary lists of punitive measures against untrustworthiness suited to these localities. No department (work unit) may coercively require financial bodies, credit service bodies, sectoral associations, chambers of commerce, etc. to punish untrustworthy subjects.

(10) Ensure wrongdoings and punishments are proportional. According to the principles of legality, correlation and balance, according to the list of punishment measures against untrustworthiness, on the basis of the nature of the untrustworthy act and the extent of its gravity, adopt punitive measures of suitable weight, and prevent that small wrongdoings are punished heavily. No department (work unit) may, for the reason of existing regulations not sufficiently strongly punishing untrustworthy acts, expand punitive measures outside the provisions of laws, regulations, or Party Centre or State Council policy documents, or increase punishment on top of statutory punishment standards.

VI, Completing and perfecting credit recovery mechanisms

(11) Establishing and completing a set of credit recovery mechanisms. Related sectoral competent (supervision) departments shall establish credit recovery mechanisms beneficial to self-correction and active self-renewal. Except where laws, administrations, or Party Centre or State Council policy documents clearly provide untrustworthiness information cannot be recovered, where untrustworthy subjects correct the untrustworthy act according to requirements or eliminate the harmful influence, they may in all cases apply for credit recovery. Related departments (work units) shall formulate concrete regulations for credit recovery, clarifying recovery methods and procedures. Where they conform to recovery conditions, they will be timely removed from the name list of untrustworthy subjects according to relevant regulations, the sharing and publication of related untrustworthiness information ceases, or the related untrustworthiness information will be indicated, shielded off or deleted.

(12) Raising credit recovery rates. Strengthen credit recovery information sharing, accelerate the construction and perfection of coordinated and joint “running everything on one network” mechanisms, realistically resolve the problem that “credit recovery is difficult”. Related sectoral competent (supervision) departments as well as the Nationwide Credit Information Sharing Platform and the “Credit China” website shall appoint specialized personnel responsible for credit recovery work, and process credit recovery requests meeting conditions within statutory time limits, they may in no way collect fees from subjects applying for credit recovery.

VII, Strengthening information security and privacy protection

(13) Strengthening credit information security management. All levels’ public credit information systems must, according to the requirement of protecting market subjects’ rights and interests, clarify information inquiry and use privileges and procedures, establish and perfect information inquiry and use registration and inspection structures, and prevent information leaks, where information leaks intentionally or due to work errors, the responsibility of related work units and personnel must be prosecuted strictly, according to laws and regulations. Strictly investigate and prosecute acts of credit information leaks, distortion, damage and theft, or use of credit information to seek improper gain, strictly attack unlawful activities such as the illegal collection, sale or purchase of credit information under the guise of social credit system construction.

(14) Strengthening personal privacy protection. All localities and all relevant departments shall abide by the principles of legality, justification, necessity and minimization, collect and use personal credit information strictly according to the public credit information catalogue, clearly indicate the goal, method and scope of information collection and use and obtain consent from the person in question, where laws or regulations provide otherwise, those provisions are followed. It is prohibited for any work unit or individual to collect and use a person’s credit information without authorization, having coerced authorization or to do so life-long with a one-time authorization. Strengthen investigation and prosecution of the illegal collection, transmission, use, leakage, distortion, damaging, theft or sale of personal credit information and other such act. Related departments must implement focused supervision and management of financial bodies, credit investigation bodies, Internet enterprises, big data enterprises and mobile application software work units, and strictly standardize their personal information collection, storage, use, processing, transmission, provision and publication activities.

VIII, Striving to strengthen credit rule of law construction

(15) Accelerating the progress of credit law and regulation construction. Persist in following rule of law tracks, accelerate the research and advance of legislative processes for laws and regulations in the social credit area, smoothen the relationship between punishment for untrustworthiness and administrative management measures, lay a firm rule of law basis. Where the punitive strength of existing laws and regulations is insufficient, and it is necessary to strengthen punishment, all localities and all relevant departments shall put forward legislative revision suggestions in a timely manner, and ensure punishment for untrustworthiness is conducted strictly according to laws and regulations.

(16) Advancing social credit system construction strictly according to laws and regulations. Strictly standardize credit information, collection and publication scopes according to laws and regulations, strictly standardize determination of name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects, punishment for untrustworthiness and credit recovery work, ensure that all areas of social credit system construction work operate along rule of law tracks. Minors’ untrustworthy acts, untrustworthy acts resulting from natural disasters, epidemics and other inevitable influences as well as acts with non-subjective intent or minor untrustworthy acts, shall be determined, recorded and punished in a tolerant and cautious manner. Firmly investigate, prosecute and attack all kinds of infringing acts, protect credit information security, commercial secrets and personal privacy according to laws and regulations, and protect the lawful rights and interests of all kinds of credit subjects according to laws and regulations.

IX, Strengthening organizational implementation safeguards.

Implementing dominant responsibilities. All sectoral competent (supervision) departments must realistically fulfil their dominant responsibility in supervising and managing credit in their sector, and perform untrustworthy conduct determination, recording, collection, sharing, publication, punishment and credit recovery work according to laws and regulations, the Interministerial Joint Conference’s leading work units must coordinate with judicial bodies as well as other responsible work units who have already obtained clear authorization in performing related work well. All local levels’ social credit system construction leading work units must realistically implement their comprehensive coordination responsibilities, and strengthen standardization and guidance of social credit system construction work in their areas.

Strengthening responsibility and accountability. With regard to recording, sharing and publication of credit information outside of public credit information catalogues and in violation of laws and regulations, implementing punitive measures outside of the punishment list for untrustworthiness in violation of laws and regulations, as well as acts such as unauthorized determination about name lists of gravely untrustworthy subjects not according to standards and procedures, not processing credit recovery timely or according to regulations, the liability of related work units and personnel must be prosecuted according to laws and regulations

Strengthening propaganda and explanation. All kinds of media are encouraged to vigorously conduct sincerity propaganda and education, deeply report on advanced models of sincerity and promise-keeping, launch constructive public opinion supervision of untrustworthy conduct and incidents, advocate sincerity and promise-keeping. Let relevant departments, sectoral associations and chambers of commerce, experts and scholars, news media, etc. play their role fully, timely explain and interpret credit policies, vigorously respond to concerns from all sides, strengthen positive guidance, and create a benign public opinion environment.

Grasping the moment. All localities and all relevant departments must, according to the requirements of these Opinions, conduct a comb-through and assessment of measures on untrustworthy conduct determination, recording, collection, sharing, publication, punishment and credit recovery measures already published, and those not meeting the requirements of these Opinions must be timely standardized. Set up a transitional period for name list structures of gravely untrustworthy subjects having a clear basis for their continued retention, complete renewal determination standards and procedures of name lists that these Opinions require to be adjusted before the end of 2021, after the transition period, those not conform to the requirements of these Opinions will be abolished without exception.

State Council General Office

7 December 2020







































State Council General Office Guiding Opinions concerning Accelerating the Advance of Social Credit System Construction and Building Credit-Based Novel Supervision and Management Mechanisms

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GBF No. (2019)35

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council Ministries and Commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

In order to strengthen the construction of the social credit system, deeply advance the “release, management and service” reform, further give rein to the fundamental role of credit in innovating supervision and management mechanisms, raising supervision and management capacities and levels, even better incite the vigour of market subjects, and promote high-quality development, with the agreement of the State Council, the following Opinions are hereby put forward.

I, General requirements.

With Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era as guidance, deeply implement the spirit of the 19th Party Committee and its 2nd and 3rd Plenums, according to the basic principles of acting according to laws and regulations, reform and innovation, coordinated and joint governance, with strengthening credit supervision and management as rallying points, innovate supervision and management concepts, supervision and management structures, and supervision and management methods, establish and complete novel supervision and management methods running throughout the whole lifecycle of market subjects, connecting supervision and management links ex ante, ad interim and ex post, incessantly enhance supervision and management capabilities and levels, further standardize market order, optimize the commercial environment, and promote high-quality development.

II, Innovating credit supervision and management in the ex-ante link

(1) Establishing and completing credit commitment structures. When handling administrative licencing affairs using credit commitment structures, where applicants’ commitments conform to approval conditions and they have submitted the relevant materials, this shall be handled immediately. Where applicants’ credit situation is relatively good, and a part of the application materials is incomplete but they commit in writing to provide this within the provided time period, they shall be accepted with priority, and the handling process is to be accelerated. The circumstances of honouring written commitments will be entered into credit records, to act as an important basis for ad interim and ex post supervision and management, applicants not honouring them will be subject to punishment in view of the circumstances. We must accelerate combing through administrative licensing items amenable to the introduction of credit commitments, formulate credit commitment letters with standardized templates, and rely on all levels’ credit portal websites to publish them. Market subjects are encouraged to actively issue credit commitments to society. Sectoral associations and chambers of commerce are supported in the establishment and completion of intra-sector credit commitment structures, strengthening sectoral self-discipline. (All localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(2) Exploring the introduction of business people’s pre-access sincerity education. Fully utilized all levels’ and all categories’ government service windows, to broadly launch education on legal compliance and sincerity among market subjects. When handling work related to registration, examination and approval, filing, etc. for market subjects, timely introduce standardized, regularized and convenient legal knowledge and credit knowledge education, raising business people’s consciousness on doing business according to the law and sincerely. The launch of credit education must not be fee-paying, and must also not be a necessary condition for market access. (All localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(3) Vigorously expand credit reporting applications. All kinds of market subjects are encouraged to more broadly and actively use credit reports in their production and commercial activities. In processes such as government procurement, tendering and bidding, administrative examination and approval, market access, credential verification, etc., fully give rein to the role of credit reports issues by public credit service bodies and third-party credit service bodies. Explore the establishment of nationwide uniform credit report standards, promote cross-regional mutual recognition of credit report results. (NDRC, PBoC take the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

III, Strengthening credit supervision and management in the ad interim segment

(4) Comprehensively establish market subject credit records. Establish credit information collection catalogues on the basis of lists of powers and responsibilities, timely, accurately and comprehensively record market subjects’ credit activities in the process of handing registration, qualification verification, daily supervision and management,  public service, etc., especially file and record untrustworthiness records, ensure that these can be consulted, verified and traced. ((All localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties). Perfect uniform social credit code structures for legal persons and non-legal person organizations, use the uniform social credit code as a marker to integrate and shape integrated market subject credit records, and publish these according to laws and regulations through channels such as the “Credit China” website, he national enterprise credit information publication system or the China governmental web, as well as other related portal websites. Complete the 12315 market supervision and management complaint reporting hotline and informatized platform integration work, forcefully launch consumer complaints publication, stimulate businesspeople to implement their leading responsibility for consumer rights defence. (NDRC takes the lead, all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties).

(5) Establishing and completing voluntary credit information registration mechanisms. Encourage market subjects to voluntarily register credit information on qualifications and licences, market operations, contract fulfilment, social welfare, etc. on the “Credit China” website or other channels, to make public credit commitments concerning the veracity of the information, authorize the website to integrate, share and apply corresponding information.  Verified voluntarily registered information may be an important basis to conduct credit evaluation and generate credit reports. (NDRC takes the lead, all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties.

(6)  Deeply conducting comprehensive credit evaluation. The nationwide credit information sharing platforms must strengthen coordination and cooperation with relevant departments, integrate all kinds of credit information according to laws and regulations, conduct full-coverage, standardized, and public interest-type comprehensive public credit evaluation of market subjects, regularly report evaluation results to corresponding government department, financial bodies, sectoral associations and chambers of commerce for reference and use, and publish them to society according to relevant regulations. Promote relevant departments’ use of comprehensive public credit evaluation results, integrate departmental and sectoral management data, establish sectoral credit evaluation models, and provide ever more accurate bases for credit supervision and management. (NDRC takes the lead, all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(7) Forcefully advancing tiered and categorized credit supervision and management. Divide supervision and management across tiers and categories on the basis of fully grasping credit information, and comprehensively deliberating the situation of credit, and on the basis of comprehensive public credit evaluation results and sectoral credit evaluation results, etc., and adopt differentiated supervision and management measures based on the height of the credit tier. “Double random and one public” supervision and management must be integrated with credit tiers, the proportion and frequency of spot checks may be reasonably lowered for market subjects with relatively good credit and relatively low risk, reducing influence to their regular production and operations; for market subjects with ordinary credit risks, spot checks are conducted with conventional proportions and frequencies; for law-breaking, untrustworthy, and relatively high-risk market subjects the proportion and frequency of spot checks will be appropriately increased, implementing strict management and punishment according to laws and regulations. (All localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

IV, Perfecting credit supervision and management in the ex-post segment

(8) Completing determination mechanisms for the counterparts for joint punishment for trust-breaking. Relevant departments will establish and complete name list systems for the counterparts of joint punishment for trustworthiness according to laws and regulations, on the basis of untrustworthiness records obtained and determined during the ex ante and interim supervision and management segments. Market subjects with unlawful and untrustworthy acts of a malicious nature, with grave circumstances and relatively large social harm will be listed on the name list for joint punishment counterparts for untrustworthy acts according to procedure and on the basis of corresponding judicial verdicts, administrative punishments, administrative coercive measures, etc. Accelerate the perfection of relevant management rules, clarify determination bases, standards, procedures, dissent appeals and withdrawal mechanisms. For the formulation of management rules, the opinions from the social public must be fully solicited, and published standards and their concrete determination procedures will be made published to society in an appropriate manner. Relevant departments will be supported to establish name list systems for focus attention targets on the basis of requirement, for market subjects where untrustworthy acts exist but the degree of gravity has not reached the determination standard for joint punishment of untrustworthiness, it is permitted to implement strict supervision measures corresponding to the degree of their untrustworthiness. (All departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(9) Supervising rectification of untrustworthy market subjects within a limited time. Untrustworthy market subjects shall earnestly rectify matters within the provided time limits; where the rectification is insufficient, the determining department will initiate procedures for prompting talks or warning talks according to laws and regulations, according to the principle of “who determines, has the talk”, and supervise untrustworthy market subjects’ fulfilment of related duties and deletion of the harmful influence. Talk records are included into the credit record of the untrustworthy market subject, and are entered into the national credit information sharing platform after uniform collection. Forcefully advance special campaigns on untrustworthiness issues in focus areas, and adopt powerful and effective measures to accelerate the progress of rectification. (All departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(10) Deeply conducting joint punishment for untrustworthiness. Accelerate the construction of cross-regional, cross-sectoral, and cross-area joint punishment mechanisms for untrustworthiness, and resolve the problem that untrustworthy acts emerge repeatedly, or emerge in other areas at the roots. Establish joint punishment measure lists according to laws and regulations, dynamically renew them and publish them to society, and create a large structure for joint punishment for untrustworthiness with multi-barrelled roles for administrative, market and sectoral punishment measures, and broad participation from social forces. Focus on implementing punishment measures for untrustworthiness with great punitive strength and good supervision and management effects, including constraining targets of joint punishment for untrustworthiness according to laws and regulations from issuing shares, tendering and bidding, applying for funding projects from the finance administration, enjoying fiscal preferences and other such administrative punishment measures, restrict them from obtaining credit lines, traveling on aircraft, traveling on high-grade trains and seats and other such market punishment measures, as well as reporting for criticism, public denunciation and other such administrative punishment measures. (NDRC takes the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their responsibilities)

(11) Determinedly implementing market and sector ban mechanisms according to laws and regulations. Implement strict supervision and management, and strengthen punishment with the focus on food and drug products, ecology and the environment, engineering quality, safe production, care for the elderly and children, urban operational security and other such areas directly connected with the security of the popular masses’ lives and assets. Firmly implement market and sectoral ban measures within a certain time period according to laws and regulations, even up to permanent expulsion from markets, against market subjects and their relevant responsible persons who refuse to implement a judicial verdict or an administrative punishment decision, do not improve after repeated violations, resulting in major losses. (NDRC takes the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(12) Lawfully investigate liability for law-breaking and untrustworthiness. Establish and complete liability investigation mechanisms, impose untrustworthiness punishment against the legal representative or main responsible persons and actual controlling persons of  market subjects listed on the joint punishment target list for untrustworthiness according to laws and regulations, and enter corresponding untrustworthy act on their personal credit record. Where unlawful or untrustworthy conduct occurs in organize undertaking work units or State-owned enterprises, it must be reported to the higher-level competent work unit and auditing department; where unlawful or trust-breaking conduct occurs among work personnel, they must be reported to their work unit and the related discipline inspection, supervision, organization and personnel departments. (All localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(13) Exploring the establishment of credit recovery mechanisms. Where untrustworthy market subjects correct the untrustworthy act and eliminate harmful influence within the provided time limit, they may conduct credit recovery through methods such as issuing credit commitments, completing credit rectification, passing credit inspections, accepting specialized training, submitting credit reports, participating in public interest and charity activities, etc. After recovery is completed, all localities and all departments must timely cease the publication of their untrustworthiness reports according to procedure, and terminate the implementation of joint punishment measures. Accelerate the establishment and perfection of mechanisms for coordination and joint action, handling all affairs through one network, and provide high-efficiency and convenient credit recovery services to untrustworthy market subjects. Third-party credit service bodies meeting conditions are encouraged to provide credit reports, credit management consulting and other such services. (NDRC takes the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties) 

V, Strengthening support and safeguards for credit supervision and management

(14) Striving to enhance credit supervision and management informatization construction levels. Give full rein to the information collection and sharing role of the nationwide credit information sharing platform and the national “Internet Plus Supervision and Management” system, ensure that government departments’ credit information “is fully collected where it shall be collected”, enhance the interconnection and interaction of local credit information platforms and sectoral credit information systems, create smooth government and enterprise data circulation mechanisms, create “one network” completely covering credit information of all localities, all departments and all kinds of market subjects. Rely on the national credit information sharing platform and the national “Internet Plus Supervision and Management” system to share basic market subject information, law enforcement supervision, management and punishment information, untrustworthiness joint punishment information etc. with related departmental operations systems according to requirement, add applications in the process of credit supervision and management and other such processes, support the creation of a credit supervision and management coordination mechanism with synchronized data, uniform measures and consistent standards. (NDRC and State Council General Office take the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(15) Forcefully advancing credit supervision and management information openness and publication. On the basis of integrated publication of administrative licensing and administrative punishment information, entrust the “Credit China” website, the Chinese government network and other channels with further researching and promoting the open uploading of information on administrative obligations, administrative affirmations, administrative collection, administrative fees, administrative rulings, administrative compensation, administrative rewards, administrative supervision and inspection, and other such administrative acts within seven working days, promote the publication of information in judicial verdicts and law enforcement activities related to untrustworthy persons subject to enforcement and untrustworthy persons making false complaints of whom the information should be published, ensuring that “what shall be published, is fully published”. (All localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(16) Fully giving rein to the supporting role of “Internet Plus” and big data in credit supervision and management. Rely on the national “Internet Plus Supervision and Management” system and other such systems to effectively integrate public credit information, market credit information, complaints reporting information and related Internet and third-party information, fully use big data, artificial and other such new-generation information technologies to realize that credit supervision and management data can be compared, processes can be traced, and issues can be monitored. All localities and all departments are encouraged to, in integration with reality, cooperate with big data bodies according to laws and regulations to exploit credit information, grasp market subjects’ business situations and the characteristics of their laws in a timely and dynamic manner. Fully use the national “Internet Plus Supervision and Management” system and other such systems to establish early risk assessment and early warning mechanisms, to discover and prevent symptomatic, cross-sectoral and cross-regional risks early. Use big data to actively discover and distinguish clues for violations of laws and regulations, effectively prevent acts violating laws and regulations harming the public interests and the security of the masses’ lives and assets. It is encouraged to enhance law enforcement supervision and management efficiency through the Internet of Things, the Internet of Vision and other such non-contact supervision and management measures to enhance the efficiency of law enforcement, supervision and management, realize the standardization, accuratization and smartification of supervision and management, reduce human factors, realize fair supervision and management, stop problems such as wilful inspections, multi-headed supervision and inspection, etc., realize “entering the door once, inspecting multiple matters”, and reduce disturbance to supervision and management targets. (State Council General Office, NDRC, State Administration of Market Regulation take the lead, all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties.

(17) Realistically strengthening the protection of  credit information security and market subjects’ rights and interests. Strictly investigate and prosecute acts where credit information is leaked or distorted in violation of regulations, or credit information is used in pursuit of private gain, etc. Strengthen the construction of basic credit information security infrastructure and security protection capabilities. Establish and complete credit information objection and complaint structures, information providing and collecting work units must as quickly as possible examine and verify information to which market subjects have raised an objection and feed back the results, information verified as containing errors must be timely corrected or deleted. Where market subjects’ lawful rights and interests were harmed after they were erroneously assigned to the untrustworthiness joint punishment target list, or untrustworthiness joint measures were erroneously adopted, relevant departments and work units must vigorously adopt measures to eliminate the harmful influence. (All localities and al departments are responsible on the basis of their duties)

(18) Vigorously guiding sectoral organizations and credit service bodies to coordinate supervision and management. Relevant department-authorized sectoral associations and chambers of commerce are supported to assist in the conduct of sectoral credit construction and credit supervision and management, sectoral associations and chambers of commerce are encouraged to establish member credit records, conduct credit commitments, credit training, sincerity propaganda, sincerity advocacy etc., make sincerity into an important component for sectoral rules and sectoral conventions, and guide their sectors in strengthening awareness about doing business lawfully and sincerely. Promote the development of information services for credit inquiry, credit grading, credit insurance, credit guarantees, contract fulfilment guarantees, credit management consulting and training, etc., and realistically let third-party credit service bodies play a specialized role in aspects such as credit information collection, processing, use, etc. Relevant departments are encouraged to launch cooperation’s with third-party credit service bodies in areas such as credit record integration, credit information sharing, credit big data analysis, credit risk early warning, examination and verification of cases of untrustworthiness, tracing and monitoring of untrustworthy activities, etc. (NDRC, Ministry of Civil Affairs, People’s Bank of China are respectively responsible according to their duties)

VI, Strengthening organization and implementation of credit supervision and management

(19) Strengthening organizational leadership. All localities and all departments must make building credit-based novel supervision and management mechanisms into an important measure in deeply advancing the “release, manage, serve” reform, put it in an ever more prominent position, strengthen organizational leadership, detail divisions of work and responsibilities, and promote implementation in a forceful, orderly and effective manner. Perfect supplementary structures to credit supervision and management, and strengthen links with other elements of “release, manage, serve” reform. Departments responsible for market supervision and management and sectoral supervision and management must realistically bear their dominant responsibility in sectoral credit construction and credit supervision and management, fully give rein to the roles of sectoral organizations and third-party credit service bodies, create beneficial conditions for public supervision, integrate and create joint forces for credit supervision and management with joint participation from all of society. (NDRCD takes the lead, all departments and all localities are respectively responsible according to their duties) 

(20) Launching trials and demonstrations. Organize and launch credit construction and credit supervision and management trials and demonstrations revolving around credit commitments, credit recovery, untrustworthiness joint punishment, credit big data exploitation and use and other such focus work. On the basis of exploration and innovation in all localities and all departments, timely summarize, abstract and exchange good methods and good experiences in launching credit construction and credit supervision and management, and reproduce and broaden them on an ever greater scale (NDRC takes the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(21) Accelerating the establishment of rules and structures. Promote the formulation of social credit system construction-related laws, accelerate the research and promulgation of public credit information management regulations, unified social credit code management rules and other such regulations. Establish and complete nationwide uniform credit supervision and management norms and standards, timely publish related local regulations, government rules and normative documents, and upgrade methods effective in credit supervision and management practice into structures and norms. Grasp the formulation of national standards urgently needed in credit supervision and management. (NDRC, Ministry of Justice take the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

(22) Conducting propaganda and explanation. All localities and all departments must, through all kinds of channels and methods, conduct policy propaganda and explanation work in a thorough and detailed manner for market subjects, to let businesspeople fully understand and vigorously cooperate with credit-based novel supervision and management measures. Strengthen guidance and training for grass-roots and first-line supervision and management personnel. Organize news media to report broadly, vigorously propagate credit supervision and management measures and their results, and create a benign social atmosphere. (NDRC takes the lead, all localities and all departments are respectively responsible according to their duties)

State Council General Office

9 July 2019      

国务院办公厅关于加快推进社会信用体系建设 构建以信用为基础的新型监管机制的指导意见


Opinions concerning Appropriately Limiting Specific Gravely Untrustworthy Persons from Traveling on Civil Aircraft for a Certain Period, and Promoting the Construction of the Social Credit System

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FGCJ (2018)385

All provincial, autonomous region, municipal and the Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps social credit system construction leading work units, spiritual civilization offices, higher people’s courts, finance offices (bureaus), human resources and social security offices (bureaus), the State Administration of Taxation, local taxation bureaus, all delegated agencies of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, all local civil aviation management bureaus, all transportation (general) airline companies, airport companies, the China Civil Aviation Information Group, airport public security bureaus: Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Appropriately Limiting Specific Gravely Untrustworthy Persons from Riding Trains for a Certain Period, and Promoting the Construction of the Social Credit System

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FGCJ (2018)384

All provincial, autonomous region, municipal and Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps social credit system construction leading work units, spiritual civilization offices, higher-level people’s courts, finance offices (bureaus), human resources and social security offices (bureaus), the State Administration of Taxation, local taxation bureaus, all delegated agencies of the China Securities Regulatory commission, railway transportation enterprises, the Academy of Railway Science, and all railway public security bureaus: Read the rest of this entry »

A Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan

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This documents was translated jointly by Graham Webster, Paul Triolo, Elsa Kania, and Rogier Creemers. John Costello assisted with helpful comments. An analysis of this document can be found on the New America website.

State Council Notice on the Issuance of the Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan

Completed: July 8, 2017

Released: July 20, 2017


A Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan


The rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) will profoundly change human society and life and change the world. To seize the major strategic opportunity for the development of AI, to build China’s first-mover advantage in the development of AI, to accelerate the construction of an innovative nation and global power in science and technology, in accordance with the requirements of the CCP Central Committee and the State Council, this plan has been formulated.

I.  The Strategic Situation

Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Accelerating the Construction of Credit Supervision, Warning and Punishment Mechanisms for Persons Subject to Enforcement for Trust-Breaking

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Opinions concerning Accelerating the Construction of Credit Supervision, Warning and Punishment Mechanisms for Persons Subject to Enforcement for Trust-Breaking

CCP Central Committee General Office, State Council General Office

Information concerning people who are subject to enforcement for trust-breaking through a judicial procedure by a People’s Court is an important component of social credit information. Conducting credit supervision, warning and punishment of people subject to enforcement for trust-breaking, benefits stimulating persons subject to enforcement to consciously implement their duties established in valid legal documents, raises judicial credibility, and moves forward the construction of the social credit system. In order to accelerate the construction of credit supervision, warning and punishment mechanisms for people subject to enforcement for trust-breaking, the following Opinions are hereby formulated. Read the rest of this entry »

Outline of the National Informatization Development Strategy

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Central Committee General Office

State Council General Office

27 July 2016

In the present world, information technology innovation changes every day, and a tide of informatization, characterized by digitization, networking and smartification has vigorously arisen. Without informatization, there is no modernization. Adapting to and leading a new normal in economic development, and strengthening new development drivers, require informatization to penetrate into the entire process of our country’s modernization, and the acceleration and liberation of the huge potential of informatization development. Driving modernization with informatization and building a strong network power are major measures in the “Four Comprehensive” strategic positioning, and are necessary choices to realize the “Two Centenaries” struggle objective and the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

This Strategy Outline is an adjustment and development of the “National Informatization Development Strategy 2006-2020” on the basis of new circumstances, it is a programmatic document to standardize and guide national informatization development in the next ten years it is an important component part of the national strategy system, and is an important basis for the formulation of plans and policies in the area of informatization. Read the rest of this entry »

State Council Guiding Opinions concerning Establishing and Perfecting Incentives for Promise-keeping and Joint Punishment Systems for Trust-Breaking, and Accelerating the Construction of Social Sincerity

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GF No. (2016)33

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

Completing the social credit system and accelerating the building of a novel market supervision structure with credit at the core benefits the further promotion of governmental streamlining and decentralization of powers, as well as the transformation of government functions, and creating a fair and sincere market environment. In order to establish and perfect incentives for promise-keeping and joint punishment systems for trust-breaking, accelerate the construction of social sincerity, the following Opinions are hereby put forward. Read the rest of this entry »

Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data

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State Council Notice concerning Printing and Issuance of the Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data

GF No. (2015)50

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies.

Hereby, the “Outline of Operations to Stimulate the Development of Big Data” is printed and issued to you, please implement it earnestly.

State Council

31 August 2015 Read the rest of this entry »

State Council Guiding Opinions concerning Vigorously Moving Forward the “Internet Plus” Plan

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GF No. (2015)40

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all subordinate bodies:

“Internet Plus” is the profound integration of the innovation achievements of the Internet with all areas of the economy and society, it promotes technological progress, efficiency improvement and organizational reform, it enhances innovation and productivity in the real economy and creates new, even broader economic and social development circumstances with the Internet as basic infrastructure and innovation of factors. In a new round of scientific and technological revolution, as well as industrial reform worldwide, the Internet has vast prospects and limitless potential for converged development with all areas, it has already become an unstoppable tide of the times, and is having a strategic and comprehensive influence on the economic and social development of all countries. Vigorously giving rein to the comparative advantages that our country’s Internet has already created, grasping opportunities, strengthening confidence and accelerating the development of “Internet Plus”, will benefit the remoulding of innovation systems, stimulating innovative dynamism, fostering new business models and innovative public service models, and has an important role in the forging of mass entrepreneurship, mass innovation and strengthening the “double engine” of public products and public services, in actively adapting to and guiding the new normal of economic development, shaping new drivers for economic development and realizing the qualitative improvement and efficiency of the Chinese economy. Read the rest of this entry »

Some Opinions concerning the Use of Big Data to Strengthen Service to and Supervision of Market Subjects

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State Council General Office

GBF No. (2015)51

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

In order to fully use the advanced ideas, technologies and resources of big data to strengthen service to and supervision of market subjects, move forward government streamlining and decentralization of powers, as well as the transformation of government functions, and raise the government’s governing capacity, with the approval of the State Council, the following Opinions are put forward. Read the rest of this entry »

Some Opinions concerning Deepening Structural and Mechanism Reform and Accelerating the Implementation of the Innovation-Driven Development Strategy

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13 March 2015

Innovation is an important force in the progressive development of a country and a nation, and is an important force in promoting the progressive development of the entire human society. In the face of a new round of global scientific and technological revolution and major opportunities and challenges in industrial reform, in the face of the trends, changes and characteristics of a new economic normal, and in the face of the historical tasks and demands of the “Two Centenaries” struggle objectives, we must deepen structural and mechanism reform, accelerate the implementation of the Innovation-driven Development Strategy, the following opinions are hereby put forward.

I, General thinking and main objectives

To accelerate the implementation of the Innovation-driven Development Strategy, we must ensure that the market has a decisive role in the allocation of resources and give ever better rein to the role of government, do away with all mental barriers and institutional limitations fettering innovation, arouse the innovative vigour and creative potential of the entire society, enhance the efficiency and productivity of labour, information, knowledge, technology, management and capital, strengthen the linkages between science, technology and the economy, the linkages between innovation achievements and industry, the linkages between innovation programmes and current production forces, the linkages between research and development personnel’s innovative labour with their interests and incomes, strengthen the contribution of scientific and technological progress to economic development, and create a policy environment and institutional environment for mass creation and mass innovation.

– Persist in the orientation toward demand. Tightly grasp major demands for economic and social development, strive to build passageways connecting scientific and technological achievement with the transformation of existing productive forces, strive to eliminate obstacles to innovation by scientists, technological personnel, businesspeople and entrepreneurs, strive to resolve the constraints that factor drivers and investment drivers impose on changing innovation drivers, let innovation truly become a new growth point for creation, and transform the achievements of innovation into tangible industrial activity.

– Persist in putting talent first. We must make talent into the first resource for innovation, and put even more emphasis on training, using and attracting all kinds of talents well, stimulate the rational flow of talent, optimize training, and innovate talent training models; we must put even more emphasis on strengthening incentive mechanisms, and provide profit reciprocation and spiritual encouragement to scientific and technological personnel; we must put even more emphasis on giving rein to the innovative roles of entrepreneurs and skilled technology talent teams, and fully arouse the creative vitality of the entire society.

– Persist in abiding by laws. On the basis if the characteristics of scientific and technological movements, we must grasp the exploration and discovery laws of scientific research well, provide scientists with good conditions and a comfortable environment for diligent study, invention, creation and technological breakthroughs; grasp the market laws of technological innovation, let the market become the main method to optimize the allocation of innovative resources, let enterprises become the dominant force in technological innovation, let the intellectual property rights system become a basic guarantee to encourage innovation; forcefully construct a cultural and social atmosphere of daring to explore, encouraging innovation, and tolerating failure.

– Persist in comprehensive innovation. Put scientific and technological innovation in a central position in the overall picture of national development, comprehensively move scientific and technological structural reform and reform in economic and social areas forward, comprehensively move scientific, technological, management, branding, organizational and commercial model innovation forward, comprehensively move converged military-civilian innovation forward, comprehensively move cooperative inward and outward innovation forward, realize the organically unified and coordinated development of scientific and technological innovation, institutional innovation and openness innovation forward.

By 2020, an institutional environment, and policy and legal system suited to the needs of innovation-driven development must be basically formed, to provide powerful guarantees to enter into the ranks of innovative countries. Talent, capital, technology and knowledge are to circulate freely, enterprises, scientific research institutes and higher education institutes are to collaborate in innovation, with creative vitality vying to burst forth, innovation achievements are to gain full protection, the value of innovation is to be reflected more greatly, innovation resource efficiency and productivity is to rise substantially, innovation talents are to reasonably enjoy the benefits of innovation, this ensures that the Innovation-driven Development Strategy will be truly implemented, and so will build new engines to stimulate economic growth, employment and entrepreneurialism, it will build new advantages to participate in international competitiveness and cooperation, it will promote a new structure to shape sustainable development, and stimulate the transformation of economic development methods.

II, Construct a fair and competitive environment to encourage innovation.

Give rein to the fundamental role of market competition in encouraging innovation, create a fair, open and transparent market environment, strengthen the guidance of competition policies and industrial policies over innovation, stimulate the survival of the fittest, and strengthen the innovative drive of market subjects.

(1) Implement strict intellectual property rights protection systems.

Perfect intellectual property rights protection laws, research the reduction of barriers to pursue criminal liability for infringing acts, adjust compensation standards, and explore the implementation of punitive damages systems. Perfect rights holders’ rights defence mechanisms, rationally divide the evidentiary responsibilities of rights holders.

Perfect the legal structure for the protection of commercial secrets, clarify the boundary of commercial secrets and infringing acts, research the formulation of corresponding protection measures, and explore the establishment of pre-trial protection systems. Research intellectual property protection rules for commercial models and other such novel forms of innovation achievements.

Perfect intellectual property rights trial work mechanisms, move forward with the “uniting three trials” of civil, criminal and administrative intellectual property rights cases, vigorously give rein to the role of intellectual property rights courts, explore trial mechanisms for intellectual property cases across regions, destroy local protection for infringing acts.

Complete intellectual property rights investigation and prosecution mechanisms, strengthen the linkage between administrative law enforcement and the judiciary, strengthen comprehensive administrative intellectual property rights law enforcement, complete intellectual property rights defence assistance systems, and ensure that information about infringing acts is channelled into social credit records.

(2) Destroy sector monopolies and market fragmentation inhibiting innovation

Accelerate the reform of monopoly sectors, open up competitive activities in natural monopoly sectors, and establish uniform, transparent, orderly and standardized market environments encouraging innovation.

Realistically strengthen anti-monopoly law enforcement, timely discover and put an end to monopoly agreements, the abuse of a dominant market position and other such monopolistic acts, and provide a broader space for small and mid-size enterprises to innovate and develop.

Destroy local protection, clean away and eliminate provisions and methods that hamper uniform national markets, correct local governments’ acts of improper subsidy or the use of administrative powers to limit or eliminate competition, explore the implementation of fair competition investigation systems.

(3) Improve access management for new technologies, new products and new commercial models

Reform industrial access rules, formulate and implement negative industrial access lists, all kinds of market subjects are permitted to equally enter industries, areas and activities that are not listed on negative lists.

Destroy irrational access obstacles that inhibit the development of new technologies, new products and new commercial models. Establish convenient and effective supervision and management models for innovative products in medicine, medical equipment, etc., deepen examination and approval system reform, enhance evaluation resources in many channels, optimize workflows, shorten periods, and support the development of sub-contracted production and other new organizational models. Implement access policies in a focused manner for new-energy vehicles, wind power, solar power and other such areas.

Improve supervision and management over the Internet, finance, environmental protection, healthcare, culture, education and other such areas, support and encourage the development of new business models and new commercial models.

(4) Complete industrial technology policies and management structures

Reform industrial supervision and management structures, transform the current focus on preliminary examination and approval into a focus on supervision and management during and after activities, and create an industrial policy orientation that is beneficial to transformation and upgrading and that encourages innovation.

Strengthen the guiding and supervising role of industrial technology policy, clarify and progressively raise environmental, energy, and use, water use, material use, quality and security indicators and corresponding standards, and shape a market access standard system that is uniform, authoritative, open and transparent. Complete technological standard systems, and strengthen the formulation and implementation of binding standards.

Strengthen supervision over the process of implementing industrial technology policy and standards. Strengthen joint administrative law enforcement mechanisms connecting environmental protection, quality inspection, industry and commerce, security supervision and other such departments.

(5) Shape innovation mechanisms with reversed factor pricing

Mainly use mechanisms in which markets decide factor prices, stimulate enterprises to transform from relying on excessive consumption of resources and energy, low capacity and low costs to compete, towards relying on innovation and implementing differentiated competition.

Accelerate the reform of resource taxes, progressively broaden resource taxes to include all natural and ecological space that is occupied, and move forward with transforming the environmental protection fee into a tax. Perfect marketized industrial land use pricing mechanisms. Complete regular growth mechanisms for enterprise salaries, ensure that changes in labour costs are synergistically suited to increased economic quality.

III, Establish market guidance mechanisms for technological innovation

Give rein to the guiding role of markets in the orientation of technological research, the selection of paths and the allocation of all sorts of innovation resources, the adjustment of innovation policymaking and organizational models, strengthening universally beneficial policy support, stimulating enterprises in truly becoming subjects of technological innovation policymaking, research and development input, scientific research organization and the transformation of achievements.

(6) Broaden enterprises’ discourse power in state innovation policymaking

Establish high-level and regularized enterprise technology innovation dialogue and consultancy structures, give rein to the important role of enterprises and entrepreneurs in state innovation policymaking. Attract ever more enterprises to participate in the research and formulation of state technology innovation plans, programmes, policies and standards, corresponding expert consultancy groups are to have a relatively large proportion of industry experts and entrepreneurs.

State science and technology planning must focus on strategic needs, focus on deploying research in crucial areas where the markets cannot effectively allocate resources, The research orientation of technological innovation of competitive enterprises, their technological paths and factor allocation models are to be decided by enterprises autonomously on the basis of market demands.

(7) Perfect industrial technology innovation models with enterprises at the centre

Clearly market-oriented science and technology projects should be led by enterprises, guided by government and implemented jointly with higher education and scientific research institutes. It construction of strategic industrial technology innovation alliances with enterprises in the lead, and cooperation between industry, scholarship and research is encouraged.

Use more post-taxation subsidies, indirect input and other such methods to support enterprises’ autonomous policymaking and initial input, launch efforts to tackle key research and development questions in crucial and general industrial technology, equipment and standards.

Launch trial points for innovation transformation by leading enterprises, explore new mechanisms for government to support enterprises’ technological innovation, management innovation and commercial model innovation.

Perfect new service systems for small and mid-size enterprises, accelerate moving forward with the specialization and marketization of start-up incubators, intellectual property rights services, third-party inspection, monitoring and authentication bodies, expand technology trading markets.

Optimize the distribution of State laboratories, focus laboratories, project laboratories and project (technology) research centres, categorize and integrate them according to their functional orientation, build innovation networks that are open, shared and interactive, establish mechanisms that are effective and open to enterprises, especially small and mid-size enterprises. Explore the adoption of new models with enterprises in the lead, cooperation from institutes and schools, multilateral funding, military-civilian integration and achievement sharing in strategic areas, integrate the creation of a number of industrial innovation centres. Expand the extent to which major research and development infrastructure, large-scale scientific research instruments and basic patent information resources are open to society.

(8) Raise the support strength for universally preferential fiscal policies

Persist in the orientation of structural tax reduction, progressively turn State input methods into enterprises’ technological innovation mainly universally preferential fiscal policies.

Comprehensively plan and research weighted deduction policies for enterprise income tax, perfect the use of calculation methods for enterprise research and development costs, adjust catalogue management methods, broaden the scope of applicability of weighted deduction and universal preferential policies for research and development costs. Perfect methods to accredit high technology enterprises, focus on encouraging small and mid-size enterprises to expand their research and development strength.

(9) Complete procurement policies with preferential use of innovative products

Establish and complete policy systems to support the procurement of innovative products and services that conform to international norms, implement and perfect corresponding government procurement measures to stimulate the innovative development of small and mid-size enterprises, expand the procurement strength for innovative products and services. Encourage the adoption of first-sale, ordering and other non-tendered procurement methods, as well as providing support through government procurement services and other such methods, in order to stimulate the research, development and scaled-up application of innovative products.

Research and perfect policies for the use of first-generation major technology equipment, complete the preparation and use of incentive and control mechanisms for work units in product innovation, value-added services, demonstration, application and other such stages.

Ease the bounds for civilian enterprises and scientific research work units to enter into military goods research, development, production, maintenance and purchasing.

IV, Strengthen the function of financial innovation

Give rein to the boosting role of financial innovation in technological innovation, foster and expand start-up investment and capital markets, raise the flexibility and convenience of credit support for innovation, and create a good environment for all kinds of financial tools to support innovation and development in a coordinated manner.

(10) Expand the scope of investment in start-ups

Research and formulate laws and regulations for angel investment. According to the orientation and needs of fiscal reform, comprehensively research corresponding fiscal support policies for the investment during seeding period or newly established period of innovation activities, including angel investment.

Research and broaden preferential fiscal policies to stimulate start-up investment enterprises’ development, appropriately relax conditions and limitations on start-up investment enterprises investing in high technology enterprises, and on the basis of trials, let the scope of start-up investment enterprises investment deduction policies expand to include legal persons and partners in limited partnership start-up investment enterprises.

Integrate State-owned enterprise reform with the establishment of State-owned capital start-up investment funds, perfect incentive and constrain mechanisms for State-owned investment bodies. According to the principle of marketization, research the establishment of a State new industry start-up investment guidance fund, drive social capital to support strategic new industries and high technology industries during the early and middle periods, and to support the development of innovative enterprises during the start-up period.

Perfect regulations for foreign-invested start-up investment enterprises, effectively use foreign capital to invest in the area of innovation. Research corresponding policies for a fund for insurance for start-up investors.

(11) Strengthen support for technological innovation through capital markets

Accelerate start-up board market reform, strengthen institutional arrangements that are suited to the development of innovative and maturing enterprises, broaden the economic coverage of service entities, strengthen the funds circulation, M&A and trading functions of the nationwide small and mid-size enterprise stock transfer system, and standardize regional stock markets for the development of and service to small and micro-enterprises. Strengthen the organic connection of different levels of capital markets.

Give rein to the role of the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges’ shareholding mortgage and fund circulation mechanisms, support innovative and start-up enterprises meeting conditions to distribute company bonds. Support enterprises meeting conditions to distribute high-yield programme bonds, to raise funds for use in expanding input into innovation.

Promote the revision of corresponding laws and regulations, and explore the launch of intellectual property rights securitization services. Launch trials for crowd-funded shareholding, vigorously explore and standardize the development of Internet finance in service of innovation.

(12) Broaden indirect funding channel for technological innovation

Perfect laws concerning commercial banking. Choose financial bodies in the banking sector that meet conditions to explore trials to provide financial service methods combining shares and debts for enterprises’ innovation activities, and realize lending relationships with start-up investment and stock investment bodies.

Policy banks will, under the guidance of corresponding departments and supervisory bodies, accelerate innovation of financial products and service methods within their business scope, to expand credit support for enterprises’ innovation activities that meet conditions.

Steadily develop people-run banks, establish corresponding supervision and management systems, and support financial product innovations directed at the innovation needs of small and mid-size enterprises.

Establish marketized risk compensation mechanisms for intellectual property rights mortgage finance, simplify intellectual property rights mortgage finance processes. Accelerate the development of science and technology insurance, and move forward patent insurance trials.

V, Perfect incentive policies for the transformation of achievements

Strengthen respect for knowledge and respect for innovation, fully reflect the distributional orientation of the value of intellectual labour, and let scientific personnel obtain reasonable rewards for innovation activities, reflect innovation values through the application of achievements, and create wealth through the transformation of achievements.

(13) Accelerate the decentralization of science and technology achievement use, management and income powers

Incessantly summarize the experience of trials, integrate the categorized reform requirements of undertaking work units, as quickly as possible lower the use powers, management powers and income rights for scientific and technological achievements created with support of the financial administration and do not involve national defence, national security, the national interest or major social and public interests to programme undertaking work units meeting conditions. Work units’ controlling departments and financial departments are no longer to require examination, approval or filing for the use or management of scientific and technologic achievements within the country, income generated through the transformation of scientific and technological achievements is to be left with the work unit completely and brought into the work unit’s budget, uniform management is implemented, and operational income is not to be turned over to the Treasury.

(14) Raise the proportion of benefit for scientific research personnel from the transformation of achievements

Perfect professional invention systems, promote the revision of the Patent Law, the Company Law and other such relevant matters, perfect scientific and technological achievement, intellectual property ownership and profit sharing mechanisms, raise the proportion of backbone teams and major inventors. Perfect reward and compensation systems, and complete dispute resolution and legal relief systems for professional inventions.

Revise the provisions of corresponding laws and policies, In higher education institutes and scientific research institutes that are established with funding from the financial administration, the income from professional inventions and achievements is to be reasonably divided between contributing personnel and their work unit, it is permitted that the proportion of income used to reward scientific research personnel, backbone technology personnel and other major contributing personnel and teams is raised from the present minimum level of 20% to a minimum level of 50%.

State owned enterprise and undertaking work units are to calculate rewards for professional inventors and personnel or teams having made important contributions to the transformation of scientific and technological achievements as part of the salary value for that year, and not as a basic number for salary values.

(15) Expand shareholding incentives for scientific and technological personnel

Encourage all kinds of enterprises to muster the innovative vigour of scientific and technological personnel through shareholding, options, bonuses and other incentive methods.

In enterprises where higher education institutes and scientific research institutes, or other undertaking work units, are shareholders through the value of their scientific and technology achievements, limitations on shareholding incentives and share sales with respect to time limits from the establishment of the company or profit levels are to be relaxed.

Establish incentive systems to stimulate innovation in State-owned enterprises, implement shareholding rights and bonus rights incentives for technological personnel with major contributions to innovation.

Vigorously summarize the experience of trials, grasp the definition of conditions and standards for scientific and technological small and mid-size enterprises. Scientific research personnel in high technology enterprises and scientific or technological small and mid-size enterprises will in principle, when they receive income from shareholding rights or bonuses after the transformation of achievements, pay personal income tax in stages within a five years. Integrate this with personal income tax reform, and research policies to further incentivize innovation by scientific research personnel.

VI, Build even more efficient scientific research system.

Give rein to the leading and supporting role of scientific and technological research in driving innovation, respect laws, strengthen encouragement, divide work rationally, reform in a categorized manner, strengthen higher education institutes and scientific research institutes’ original innovation capacity and capacities to transform the general research and development of scientific research institutions.

(16) Optimize support methods for basic research

Realistically expand financial input into basic research, perfect mechanisms combining stable support and competitive support, expand stable support strength, support research organs in autonomously arranging their scientific research programmes, broaden the academic autonomy of higher education institutes and scientific research institutes and individuals’ power to select their research topics.

Reform scientific research planning and management methods in the area of basic research, abide by the laws of science, and establish tolerant systems supporting “non-consensus” innovation programmes.

Reform higher education institutes’ and scientific research institutes’ employment systems, optimize salary structures, and ensure that scientific research personnel enjoy reasonable levels of salary and remuneration. Perfect internal allocation systems, focus on favouring crucial positions, professional backbones and persons with prominent professional achievement.

(17) Expand encouragement for results in scientific research work.

Perfect undertaking work units’ result-based salary systems, complete allocation incentive mechanisms to encourage innovation and creation. Perfect management systems for overhead expenses in scientific research project, to strengthen incentives for results, and rationally compensate the work units that undertake projects for their overhead expenses and result-oriented payments. Work units undertaking projects should take into account the real contributions of scientific research personnel, openly and fairly arrange for result-oriented payments, which fully reflect the innovation value of scientific research personnel.

(18) Reform the scientific research evaluation system in higher education institutes and scientific research institutes

Strengthen categorized assessment of research activities in higher education institutes and scientific research institutes. Implement similar evaluation for basic research and advanced research, give prominence to medium and long term objectives, shift the evaluation focus from research achievement quantity to research quality, the value of original innovation and real contributions.

Strengthen State objectives and social responsibility evaluation of public interest research, regularly organize third-party evaluation for public interest research bodies, make the evaluation results into an important basis for financial support, and guide the establishment of mechanisms for public interest research bodies to rely on State resources to serve sectoral innovation.

(19) Deepen the transformation of scientific research institute reform

Persist in the direction of the turning technological development research bodies into enterprises, it is permitted to transform research institutes that undertake relatively many sectoral general research tasks into industrial technology research and development groups, conduct categorized management and categorized assessment of sectoral general technological research and market operation activities.

Promote the deep marketization reform of scientific research bodies that mainly engage in production and operations activities, let them attract social capital or go on the market completely, vigorously develop mixed ownership systems, and move forward the establishment of industrial technology alliances.

A number of teams in scientific research institutes under transformation, whose basic research abilities are relatively strong, are to be guided on the basis of a clear direction and standards, to come back to the public interest, participate in the construction of State focus laboratories, and supported to continue to undertake State work.

(20) Establish higher education institute and scientific research institute technology transformation mechanisms

Progressively realize a separation between higher education institutes and scientific research institutes and their subordinate companies, in principle, higher education institutes and scientific research institutes are no longer to set up new enterprises, and the external dissemination of scientific and technological achievements through licensing methods must be strengthened.

Strengthen higher education institutes’ and scientific research institutes’ intellectual property rights management, clarify the functional orientation of their subordinate technology transformation bodies, and strengthen their rights and obligations to apply for and utilize intellectual property rights.

Establish and perfect statistical and reporting systems for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements by higher education institutes and scientific research institutes, support the creation of scientific and technological achievements through funding by the finance administration, except for matters involving national defence, national security, the national interest and major social and public interests, it is permitted that the State forces the implementation of licensing where transformation has not taken place in a reasonable time period.

VII, Innovate mechanisms for fostering, using and attracting talent

Concentrate on constructing a line of new-type talent ranks on a large scale, who are rich in an innovative spirit, and who dare to bear risks, foster and attract talents according to the laws of innovation, let talents circulate freely according to the laws of the market, and realistically ensure everyone can apply their talents, talents are put to full use, and they are used successfully

(21) Build innovative types of talent fostering models

Launch heuristic, exploratory and research-oriented teaching method reform trials, carry forward a scientific spirit, create an innovation culture that encourages innovation and tolerates failure. Reform basic education and training methods, respect individual development, and strengthen training concerning interests, likes and creative thinking.

Put talent training central, strive to raise undergraduate teaching quality, accelerate the transformation of a number of common undergraduate higher education institutes into applied technology higher education institutes, launch joint school-company student recruitment and training models, expand collaborative school-company education channels and methods.

Categorically reform graduate student training methods, explore new training models for degree graduate students integrating science and education, expand the proportion of socialist degree graduate students, enhance the convergence of education and practice.

Encourage higher education institutes to compare themselves to similar international top-flight disciplines, launch international disciplinary evaluations, broaden cooperation and exchange, and steadily enhance the process of internationalization in higher education.

(22) Establish and complete two-way circulation mechanisms for scientific research talent

Improve scientific research personnel’s remuneration and position management systems, do away with structural and mechanistic obstacles to talent circulation, and stimulate scientific research personnel to rationally circulate between undertaking work units and enterprises.

Personnel of scientific research institutes meeting conditions may, with the permission of their work unit, take their scientific research projects and achievements to enterprises to launch innovation work or establish enterprises, with maintenance of a basic salary.

It is permitted that higher education institutes and scientific research institutes establish a certain proportion of mobile positions, and attract entrepreneurs with practical innovation experience and enterprise science and technology talents part-time. There will be trials with making experience with having a position in enterprise into a necessary condition for new appointments of engineering teaching staff in higher education institutes.

Accelerate social security system reform, perfect policies for scientific research personnel to continue their social security relationships when they circulate between enterprises, and stimulate the free two-way circulation of talent.

(23) Implement even more structures to attract competitive talent

Formulate life-ling residence management opinions for foreigners, accelerate legislation concerning the management of life-long residence for foreigners, standardize and relax conditions for technological talents to obtain foreigner life-long residence permits, explore the establishment of a technological migrant system. In the setting up science and technology enterprises and other such innovation activities, high-level talents with a foreign nationality that have a life-long foreigner residence permit are to be granted equal treatment to Chinese citizens.

Accelerate the formulation of work management regulations for foreigners in China, foreign talents meeting conditions are to be granted convenient work permits, foreign talents meeting conditions and their accompanying dependents are to be given convenient visas and residence permits. High-level foreign scientific and technological innovation talents meeting certain conditions are to be exempt from age limitations on work permission in China.

Concentrate on major national needs and face the world in attracting chief scientists and other high-level scientific and technological innovation talents. Establish systems for visiting scholars. Broadly attract foreign high-level talents to come (back) to China and engage in innovative research.

Steadily enhance the external openness of the human resources market, progressively relax foreign capital shareholding requirements and minimum registered capital requirements for foreign-invested intermediary talent service bodies. Encourage domestic human resources services bodies meeting conditions to go out and launch cooperation with foreign human resources service bodies, establish branch organs abroad, and vigorously participate in international talent competition and cooperation.

VIII, Promote the creation of a new situation of deeply converged, open innovation

Persist in integrating import and export, enter into global innovation network with an even more energetic attitude, attract global innovation resources with an even more broad mind, promote technology and standard export with even more vigorous tactics, and build open innovation mechanisms at a high level.

(24) Encourage cross-border circulation of innovation factors

For foreign exchange necessary to launch international research and development cooperation programmes, it is implemented that research and developments make commitment first, and commerce, science and technology, and taxation departments jointly supervise the matter afterwards.

Categorized management will be conducted over scientific research personnel leaving the country for work reasons, and quantitative restriction and management policies to temporarily leave the country for work reasons will be relaxed.

Reform inspection and management, conduct categorized management on equipment, samples and specimens required for research and development, under the precondition of guaranteeing security, adopt focus verification, spot checks, inspection exemption and other measures to raise the efficiency if verification.

(25) Optimize foreign innovation investment management systems.

Complete comprehensive coordination mechanisms, to resolve major issues in a coordinate manner, joint forces to support domestic technology, products and brands to march out, and expand international markets. Strengthen technology trading measure evaluation and risk prevention mechanisms.

Research the establishment of foreign innovation investment funds through sponsoring by State-owned focus finance bodies, foreign exchange reserves are to participate in the establishment of fund work through debt, shareholding and other methods, use global innovation resources even more and even better.

Encourage publicly-traded enterprises to invest in innovation-type programmes abroad, reform investment information disclosure systems, under the precondition that corresponding departments determine that there is no influence on national security and economic security, and on the basis of progress of commercial negotiations between Chinese and foreign enterprises, disclose information at a suitable time.

(26) Broaden the external openness of science and technology planning

Formulate management rules for the external openness of State science and technology plans, according to the principle of reciprocal openness and guaranteeing security, vigorously encourage and guide foreign-funded research and development bodies to participate in and undertake State science and technology planning programmes.

In areas such as fundamental research and research on major global questions, comprehensively consider the needs of State science and technology development and strategic objective, research and sponsor international big science plans and projects, attract top-level foreign scientists and teams to participate. Vigorously participate in large-scale international science and technology cooperation plans. Guide foreign-funded research and development centres to launch high-added value original research and development activities, guide internationally renowned scientific research bodies to come to China and jointly establish international science and technology centres.

IX, Strengthen comprehensive innovation policy coordination

Give even better rein to the government’s role in moving innovation forward. Reform science and technology management systems, accelerate innovation policy evaluation, examination and result assessment, and shape a long-lasting and effective innovation governance system with clear duties and responsibilities, vigorous performance, powerful coordination.

(27) Strengthen the comprehensive planning of innovation policies

Strengthen the comprehensive coordination and effective linkage of policies, plans and reform measures in science, technology, the economy, society and other such areas, and strengthen converged civil-military innovation. Give rein to the supporting role of science and technology circles and think tanks in innovation policymaking.

Establish innovation policy coordination and examination mechanisms, organize the launch of a clean-up of innovation policies, timely eliminate policy clauses that violate new laws, impede emerging industries and emerging business models, and inspect whether newly enacted policies constrain innovation or not.

Establish innovation policy survey and evaluation systems, broadly hear the opinions of enterprises and the social masses, regularly conduct follow-up analysis of policy implementation, and timely adjust and perfect them.

(28) Perfect evaluation systems oriented towards innovation drivers

Improve and perfect GDP calculation methods, to reflect the economic value of innovation. Research and establish Innovation-driven Development evaluation indicators combining science and technology innovation, intellectual property rights and industrial development, and bring them into national economic and social development planning.

Complete technological innovation and operational assessment systems for State-owned enterprises, enlarge the proportion of technological innovation in the operational assessment of State-owned enterprises. Conduct categorized assessment of State-owned enterprises’ research and development input and output, creates assessment mechanisms that encourage innovation and tolerate failure. Bring the results of Innovation-driven Development into the assessment scope for local leading cadres.

(29) Reform science and technology management structures.

Transform government science and technology management functions, establish mechanisms that rely on specialist bodies to manage scientific research programmes, government departments are no longer to directly manage concrete programmes, they are mainly responsible for scientific and technological development plans, schemes, policies, deployments, assessment and supervision.

Establish open and uniform national science and technology management platforms, complete mechanisms for the comprehensive planning and coordination of macro-level science and technology policymaking, strengthen departments’ functionality and division of labour, comprehensively link basic research, applied research, the transformation of achievements, industrial development and other such segments.

Further clarify the science and technology management powers and functional orientation of the Centre and localities, establish joint coordination mechanisms with integrated powers and responsibilities, and raise administrative effect. 0

(30) Move forward with comprehensive innovation reform trials

Following the law that innovative areas are highly concentrated, provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) meeting conditions are to systematically move forward comprehensive innovation reform trials, they are authorized to launch reform trials for intellectual property rights, scientific research institutes, higher education, talent circulation, international cooperation, financial innovation, incentive mechanisms, market access, etc., they must strive to make breakthroughs in focus areas and crucial segments, timely summarize and disseminate experience, play a demonstration and leading role, and stimulate the profound implementation of the Innovation-driven Development strategy.

All levels’ Party Committees and governments must give this matter high attention, strengthen leadership, and make deepening structural and mechanism reform, as well as accelerating the implementation of the Innovation-driven Development strategy into a major task to implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and its 2nd, 3rd and 4th Plenums, and implement it earnestly. Relevant sides must cooperate closely, reform tasks must be divided, time forms and roadmaps made clear, and responsible departments and persons appointed. Propaganda and public opinion guidance concerning a culture of innovation must be strengthened, in order to propagate reform experiences, respond to social concerns and guide social public opinion, creating a good social environment for innovation.













































































































































CCP General Office and State Council General Office Opinions concerning Strengthening the Construction of New Types of Think Tanks with Chinese Characteristics

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In order to deeply implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 3rd and 4th Plenums of the 18th Party Congress, strengthen the construction of new types of think tanks with Chinese characteristics and establish and complete a policymaking consultancy system, the following Opinion is formulated.

I, Major significance

(1) New kinds of think tanks with Chinese characteristics are an important support for scientific, democratic and lawful policymaking by the Party and the government. A policymaking consultancy system is an important content of the construction of our country’s Socialist democratic politics. Our Party has always given high regard to policymaking consultancy wok. Since reform and opening up, our country’s think tank construction undertaking has developed rapidly, providing powerful intelligence support to Party and government policymaking. At present, the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society has entered a decisive stage, analysing and explaining difficult questions of reform, development and stability and responding to global issues is complex and difficult without precedent, this urgently requires the completion of a policymaking support system with Chinese characteristics, the forceful strengthening of think tank construction, the support of scientific policymaking through scientific consulting, and the guidance of scientific development through scientific policymaking. Read the rest of this entry »

“Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”

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The “Opinion concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”, published today, is the latest of a series of documents aimed at imposing stricter political discipline and control in China’s academia. The original document has not been published. The following is a translation of Xinhua’s summary.

The Central Committee General Office and the State Council General Office have recently issued the “Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”. The “Opinion” emphatically points out that ideological work is an extremely important work of our Party and our country, higher education is a forward battlefield in ideological work, and shoulders the important tasks of studying, researching and propagating Marxism, fostering and carrying forward the Socialist core value system, and providing talent guarantees and intelligent support for the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Doing higher education propaganda and ideology work well and strengthening the construction of the higher education ideological battlefields are strategic projects, steadfast projects and projects of casting souls, they relate to Party leadership over higher education, relate to the comprehensive implementation of the Party’s educational policies, relate to successors for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and have an extremely important and profound significance for consolidating the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area and consolidating a common ideological basis for the united struggle of the entire Party, the entire country and all the people.

The “Opinion” consists of seven parts: I, Strengthening and improving higher education propaganda and ideology work is a major and urgent strategic task; II, guiding ideology, basic principles and main tasks; III, realistically promoting the entry of the theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics into textbooks, classrooms and minds; IV, Forcefully raising the ideological and political quality of higher education teaching teams; V, incessantly expanding higher education mainstream ideology and public opinion; VI, Striving to strengthen management of the higher education propaganda and ideology battlefield; VII, Realistically strengthening Party leadership over higher education propaganda and ideology work. Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Stimulating the Development of Cloud Computing Innovation and Fostering New Business Models in the Information Industry

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GF No. (2015)5

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

Cloud computing is a completely new business model to promote the realization of providing supply according to demand in terms of information technology capability, which stimulates the full use of information technology and data resources, and is a major reform and inevitable trend in informatized development. Developing cloud computing benefits the sharing of information, knowledge and innovation resources, the reduction of start-up costs for the whole society, the fostering and shaping of new industries and new consumption hot spots, and is of great importance for stable growth, structural adjustment, enriching the people’s livelihoods and establishing a new type of country. At present, global cloud computing is in its primary phase of development, and our country faces a rare opportunity, however, there are also problems such as relatively weak service capacity, a relatively large lack in core technology, insufficient openness and sharing of information resources, prominent challenges with information security, etc., construction has been focused on while application has been overlooked, and the sprouts of disorderly development of data centres are beginning to emerge. In order to stimulate the innovation and development of our country’s cloud computing and vigorously foster new business models in the information industry, the following opinions are hereby put forward

I, Guiding ideology, basic principles and development objectives

(1) Guiding ideology.

Adapt to the needs of moving new-type industrialization, informatization, urbanization, agricultural modernization and the modernization of the State’s governing ability forward, take comprehensively deepening reform as driver, take enhancing capabilities and deepening application as main line, perfect development environments, foster backbone enterprises, innovate service models, expand the scope of application, strengthen technology support, guarantee information security, optimize the distribution of facilities, stimulate the innovative development of cloud computing, foster new business models in the innovation industry, ensure that information resources are being used with high efficiency, provide powerful support for start-ups and emerging sectors, and for liberating innovative vitality, and draw out new drivers for the sustained and healthy development of the economy and society. Read the rest of this entry »

Notice concerning Empowering the Cyberspace Administration of China to Be Responsible for Internet Information Content Management Work

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GF No. (2014)33

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies

In order to stimulate the healthy and orderly development of Internet information services, protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and safeguard national security and the public interest, the re-established Cyberspace Administration of China is empowered to be responsible for Internet information content management work nationwide, and to be responsible for supervision, management and law enforcement.

State Council

26 August 2014

Read the rest of this entry »

Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)

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State Council Notice concerning Issuance of the Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)

GF No. (2014)21

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate departments:

The “Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)” is hereby issued to you, please implement it earnestly.

State Council, 14 June 2014

(This document for public circulation)

Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)

A social credit system is an important component part of the Socialist market economy system and the social governance system. It is founded on laws, regulations, standards and charters, it is based on a complete network covering the credit records of members of society and credit infrastructure, it is supported by the lawful application of credit information and a credit services system, its inherent requirements are establishing the idea of an sincerity culture, and carrying forward sincerity and traditional virtues, it uses encouragement to keep trust and constraints against breaking trust as incentive mechanisms, and its objective is raising the honest mentality and credit levels of the entire society.

Accelerating the construction of a social credit system is an important basis for comprehensively implementing the scientific development view and building a harmonious Socialist society, it is an important method to perfect the Socialist market economy system, accelerating and innovating social governance, and it has an important significance for strengthening the sincerity consciousness of the members of society, forging a desirable credit environment, raising the overall competitiveness of the country and stimulating the development of society and the progress of civilization.

On the basis of the general requirement to “strengthen sincerity in government affairs, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility construction” as put forward by the 18th Party Congress, “establish and complete a social credit system, commend sincerity and punish insincerity” as put forward by the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, “establish and complete a social credit system” as put forward in the “CCP Central Committee and State Council Opinions concerning Strengthening and Innovating Social Management”, as well as “accelerate the construction of a social credit system” as put forward in the “12th Five-Year Planning Outline of the Economic and Social Development of the People’s Republic of China” (hereafter simply named the “12th Five-Year Plan”), this Planning outline has been formulated. The planning period is 2014-2020.

I, The overall line of thinking for the construction of a social credit system

(1) Development situation.

The Party Centre and the State Council pay high regard to the construction of a social credit system. Relevant regions, departments and work units have explored and moved the matter forward, and positive headway has been made in social credit system construction. The State Council has established an interministerial joint conference for social credit system construction to comprehensively move social credit system construction forward, which promulgated and implemented the “Credit Investigation Sector Management Regulations”, and a batch of rules and standards for credit system construction have been successively rolled out. A nationwide uniform financial credit information database has been created, the construction of a credit system for small and micro-enterprises and the countryside has been vigorously moved forward; various ministries have promoted credit information openness, launched industry credit evaluation, and implemented categorized supervision and management over credit; various sectors have vigorously launched propaganda and education on sincerity and sincerity self-discipline activities; various regions have explored the establishment of comprehensive credit information sharing platforms, stimulating the comprehensive use of credit information by various departments and work units; social demand for credit services and products is growing every day, and the credit services market is incessantly expanding in scale.

Although certain headway has been made in the construction of our country’s social credit system, the contradictions that it is not matched, not coordinated and not adapted to economic development levels and the social development stage remain prominent. The main problems that exist include: a credit investigation system that covers all of society has not yet been formed, credit records of the members of society are gravely flawed, incentive mechanisms to encourage keeping trust and punishments for breaking trust are incomplete, trust-keeping is insufficiently reward, the costs of breaking trust tend to be low; credit services markets are not developed, service systems are immature, there are no norms for service activities, the credibility of service bodies is insufficient, and the mechanisms to protect the rights and interests of credit information subjects are flawed; the social consciousness of sincerity and credit levels tend to be low, and a social atmosphere in which agreements are honoured and trust are honestly kept has not yet been shaped, especially grave production safety accidents, food and drug security incidents happen from time to time, commercial swindles, production and sales of counterfeit products, tax evasion, fraudulent financial claims, academic impropriety and other such phenomena cannot be stopped in spite of repeated bans, there is still a certain difference between the extent of sincerity in government affairs and judicial credibility, and the expectations of the popular masses.

(2) Circumstances and requirements

Our country is currently in the assault phase of deepening economic structural reform and perfecting the Socialist market economy system. The modern market economy is a credit economy, establishing and completing an social credit system is an important step in rectifying and standardizing the market economy order, improving the market’s credit environment, reducing transaction costs and preventing economic risk, and is an urgent requirement to reduce administrative governmental interference in the economy and perfecting the Socialist market economy system.

Our country is in a period of strategic opportunity to accelerate the transformation its development method and realize scientific development. Accelerating the promotion of social credit system construction is an important precondition for stimulating optimized resource allocation, broadening internal demand and stimulating the structural optimization and improvement of industrial structures, and is an urgent requirement to perfect scientific development mechanisms.

Our country is in a crucial period of economic and social transformation. Interest subjects are becoming more pluralized, various social contradictions are prominent, and social organizations and management methods are seeing profound change. Completely moving the construction of a social credit system forward is an effective method to strengthen social sincerity, stimulate mutual trust in society, and reducing social contradictions, and is an urgent requirement for strengthening and innovating social governance, and building a Socialist harmonious society.

Our country is in a period of expansion in which the openness levels of the economy are rising on an even greater scale, across even broader fields, and at even deeper levels. Economic globalization has enabled an incessant increase of our country’s openness towards the world, and economic and social interaction with other countries and regions is becoming ever closer. Perfecting the social credit system is a necessary condition to deepen international cooperation and exchange, establishing international brands and reputations, reducing foreign-related transaction costs, and improving the country’s soft power and international influence, and is an urgent requirement to promote the establishment of an objective, fair, reasonable and balanced international credit rating system, to adapt to the new circumstances of globalization, and master new globalized structures.

(3) Guiding ideology and target principles.

To comprehensively move the construction of a social credit system forward, we must persist in taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the important “Three Represents” thought and the scientific development view as guidance, act according to the spirit of the 18th Party Congress, the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, and the “12th Five-Year Plan”, take completing credit laws, regulations and standard systems and shaping a credit investigation system covering all of society as the basis, take moving forward the construction of sincerity in government affairs, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility as main content, take moving forward the construction of an sincerity culture and establishing mechanisms to encourage sincerity and punish insincerity as focal points, take moving forward the construction of sectoral credit, the construction of local credit and the development of credit services markets as support, take raising the entire society’s sense of sincerity and credit levels and improving the economic and social operating environment as targets, put people first, broadly shape a thick atmosphere in the entire society that keeping trust is glorious and breaking trust is disgraceful, and ensure that sincerity and trustworthiness become conscious norms of action among all the people.

The main objectives of the construction of a social credit system are: by 2020, basically having established fundamental laws, regulations and standard systems for social credit, basically having completed a credit investigation system covering the entire society with credit information and resource sharing at the basis, basically having completed credit supervision and management systems, having a relatively perfect credit service market system, and giving complete rein to mechanisms to encourage keeping trust and punish breaking trust. Having made clear headway in the construction of sincerity in government affairs, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility, and a substantial rise in market and social satisfaction levels. Having broadly strengthened the sense of sincerity in the entire society, achieved a clear improvement in the credit environment for economic and social development, and a market improvement of the economic and social order.

The main principles for social credit system construction are:

Government promotion, joint construction with society. Fully give rein to the organizational, guiding, promoting and demonstration roles of government. The government is responsible for formulating and implementing development plans, completing regulations and standards, fostering and supervising credit service markets. Focus on giving rein to the role of market mechanisms, coordinate and optimize resource allocation, encourage and muster social forces, broaden participation, move forward together, shape joint forces for social credit system construction.

Completing the legal system, standardizing development. Progressively establish and complete credit law and regulation systems and credit standards systems, strengthen credit information management, standardize the development of credit service structures, safeguard the security of credit information, and the rights and interests of information subjects.

Comprehensive planning, graduated implementation. In view of the long-term nature, systemic nature and complexity of social credit system construction, strengthen top-level design, stand on the present, gaze towards the future, plan the overall picture comprehensively, plan systematically, organize implementation in a planned and graduated manner.

Breakthroughs in focus points, strengthen application. Choose focus areas and model regions to launch credit construction demonstrations. Vigorously spread the socialized application of credit products, stimulate the interaction, exchange, coordination and sharing of credit information, complete combined social credit reward and punishment mechanisms, construct a social credit environment of sincerity, self-discipline, trust-keeping and mutual trust.

II, Move sincerity construction forward in focus areas

(1) Accelerating the construction of government affairs sincerity.

Sincerity in government affairs is the crux of social credit system construction, the level of sincerity of all sorts of governmental actors plays an important model and guidance role for the construction of sincerity among other social subjects.

Persisting in administration according to the law. Administration according to the law penetrates the entire process of policymaking, implementation, supervision and service, comprehensively move government affairs openness forward, under the precondition of protecting national information security, commercial secrets and individual privacy, publish credit information obtained in administrative management according to the law, and establish effective information sharing mechanisms. Realistically raise government work efficiency and service levels, transform the functions of government. Complete systems to constrain and supervise the use of power, ensure that policymaking powers, implementation powers and supervision powers are mutually constraining and mutually coordinating. Perfect mechanisms and procedures for government policymaking, raise the transparency of policymaking. Further expand the major policy decision publication and haring system, broaden channels for public participation in government policymaking, strengthen social supervision over and constraints on the use of power, improve government credibility, establish an honest image of an open, fair and clean government.

Give rein to the demonstration role of government in sincerity construction. All levels’ People’s Governments must first and foremost strengthen their own sincerity construction, and drive the establishment of an sincerity consciousness in all of society and an increase in the levels of sincerity through honest governing by governments. Take the lead in using credit information and credit products in administrative permission, government procurement, tendering and budding, labour and employment, social security, scientific research management, cadre promotion and appointment, management and supervision, application for government financial support and other such areas, and foster the development of a credit services market.

Accelerate the construction of government trust-keeping and commitment mechanisms. Strictly carry out the commitments that government has made to society, bring the honouring of agreements and keeping of service commitments in government affairs into the government achievements evaluation system, make development planning and government work reporting concerning the implementation situation of economic and social development objectives, as well as the situation of keeping commitments in handling affairs for the common people into an important content for evaluating the level of government honest, and promote the progressive establishment and completion of government affairs and administrative commitment-keeping assessment system in all localities and all departments. All levels’ People’s Governments’ political commitments and all categories of agreements signed according to the law must be earnestly carried out and honoured. It is necessary to vigorously create a fair, competitive, uniform and highly efficient market environment, it is not permitted to engage in local protectionism measures, such as abusing administrative powers to close off markets, cover up or connive at acts violating laws, regulations or trust by social subjects within an administrative region. It is necessary to support statistics departments in creating statistics according to the law, and creating accurate statistics. Government borrowing must take place according to the law and regulations, appropriate in scope, with controllable risks and transparent procedures. Budget controls must be strengthened in government revenues and expenses, and transparency raised. Strengthen and perfect mass supervision and public opinion supervision mechanisms,. Perfect government information sincerity restraint and accountability mechanisms. All levels’ People’s Governments must consciously accept legal supervision from that level’s People’s Congress and the democratic supervision of the Consultative Conference. Expand the supervision and auditing strength of supervision, auditing and other such bodies concerning administrative acts.

Strengthen sincerity management and education among civil servants. Establish civil servant sincerity dossiers, enter civil servants’ personal credit information concerning reports on events, records of sincerity and cleanliness in government affairs, the results of annual evaluations, acts violating laws, disciplines and contract into their files, and make civil servants’ sincerity records into an important basis for assessment, employment and rewards. Deeply launch education concerning sincerity, abiding by the law and morality among civil servants, strengthen study of legal knowledge and credit knowledge, compile civil servants’ sincerity manuals, strengthen the legal and sincerity consciousness of civil servants, establish a line of civil servant teams that abide by the law and by sincerity, are highly efficient and clean.

(2) Deeply move the construction of commercial sincerity forward.

Raising sincerity levels in commercial affairs is a focus point of the construction of the social credit system, it is a basic condition for commercial relations to be effectively upheld, commercial operating costs to effectively lower, and the commercial environment to effectively improve, it is the root for the existence of the sustainable development of all kinds of commercial subjects, and is a basic guarantee for the effective conduct of all kinds of economic activities.

Credit construction in the area of production. Build credit reporting structures for safe production, perfect safe production commitment, bad safe production credit record and safe production trust-breaking punishment systems. Take the mining, non-coal mining, hazardous chemical product, fireworks, and special equipment production enterprises as well as civil explosive product production and sales enterprises and demolition enterprises or work units as focus point, complete safe production access and withdrawal credit examination and verification mechanisms, and stimulate enterprises to implement safe production responsibility systems. Take food, medicine, daily consumables, agricultural produce and farming inputs into focus points, to strengthen and perfect 12365 product quality input reporting consulting service platforms, build systems for honest quality reporting, trust-breaking blacklist and exposure, market prohibition and withdrawal.

Credit construction in the logistics sector. Research and formulate collection and sharing systems for enterprise credit information in the area of trading and logistics, perfect basic credit evaluation norms and indicator systems for trading and logistics enterprises. Move forward the construction of credit in wholesale and retail, trading and logistics, accommodation, food and drink, and residents’ services, launch categorized enterprise credit management. Perfect credit cooperation models between retailers and suppliers. Strengthen anti-monopoly and anti-unfair competition law enforcement, strengthen investigation and prosecution of acts of market distortion, false propaganda, commercial swindling, commercial slander, commercial bribes and other such unlawful acts, expose model cases and major cases increase the costs for enterprises to break trust, and stimulate sincere business and fair competition. Progressively establish nationwide product circulation tracing systems with product bar codes and other such symbols as a basis. Strengthen the construction of sincerity systems for quality and health inspection. Support commerce and trade services enterprises’ credit funding, develop commercial factoring, standardize advance payment and consumption acts. Encourage enterprises to broaden credit selling, stimulate individuals to consume on credit. Move forward with the construction of credit in external commerce and trade, further strengthen credit information management, credit risk monitoring and advance warning, as well as enterprise credit ranking management in foreign trade, foreign aid, foreign investment cooperation and other such areas. With the aid of electronic port management platforms, establish and perfect import and export enterprise credit evaluation systems, credit category management and joint supervision and management systems.

Credit construction in the area of finance. Innovate financial credit products, improve financial services, safeguard the security of personal information of financial consumers, and protect the lawful rights and interests of financial consumers. Strengthen punishment of financial swindles, malicious evasion of loan repayments, insider trading, selling fake warranties, insurance and compensation fraud, disclosure of false information, illegal fundraising, obtaining foreign currency under false pretences and other acts of financial trust-breaking, and standardize the order of financial markets. Strengthen the construction of financial credit information infrastructure, further broaden the coverage of credit records, and strengthen the incentivizing role of the financial sector to those keeping trust, and its constraining role towards trust-breakers.

Credit construction in the area of taxation. Establish intra-departmental credit information sharing mechanisms. Launch the exchange, verification and application of basic information about taxpayers, all kinds of trading information, asset ownership and transfer information as well as taxation records and other such tax-related kinds of information. Further perfect tax payment information ranking evaluation and publication systems, strengthen credit categorization management in the area of taxation, and give rein to the role of credit evaluation differentials in rewarding or punishing taxpayers. Establish black-list systems for legal violations concerning taxation. Move forward the joint management of taxation information and other kinds of social information, and ensure that taxpayers comply with fiscal law.

Credit construction in the area of pricing. Guide enterprises and businesses to strengthen self-discipline in pricing, standardize and guide businesses’ pricing acts, implement systems for businesses to clearly indicate their prices and fees, and strive for “clear real prices”. Supervise and urge businesses in strengthening internal pricing management, establish and complete internal pricing management systems on the basis of the condition of the business. Perfect business pricing sincerity systems, complete information disclosure work, and promote realistic reward and punishment systems. Strengthen pricing law enforcement inspection and anti-monopoly law enforcement, investigate and prosecute the concoction and dissemination of price-rising information, pricing swindles, pricing monopolies and other such trust-breaking activities in pricing, openly expose model cases, and standardize the market pricing order.

Credit construction in the area of project construction. Move credit system construction forward in the project construction market. Accelerate the construction for credit regulation systems in the project construction market, and formulate credit standards for all kinds of subjects and employees in the project construction market. Move forward the construction of a credit openness and sincerity system for project construction information, completely establish programme information and credit information openness and sharing columns on governmental websites, concentrate open project construction programme information and credit information, promote the construction of nationwide comprehensive search platforms, and realize “one-stop” comprehensive search services for project construction programme information and credit information openness and sharing. Deeply launch the construction of project quality and sincerity. Perfect entry and withdrawal structures for the project construction market, and strengthen punishment against enterprises where major project quality or security accidents occur, or other major trust-breaking acts occur, as well as their employees. Establish connected management mechanisms linking credit evaluation result, qualification examination and approval, professional qualification registration, qualification cancellation, and other such examination, approval and verification procedures for enterprises and employees. Establish scientific and effective employee credit evaluation mechanisms and trust-breaking liability prosecution systems for the construction area, and bring dismembered contracting, out-contracting, unlawful sub-contracting, late payment of project funds and peasant worker salaries, etc., into the scope of liability for trust-breaking.

Credit construction in the area of government procurement. Strengthen government procurement credit management, strengthen joint mechanisms, and protect the lawful rights and interests of parties in government procurement. Formulate credit record standards for suppliers, evaluation experts, government procurement agencies as well as corresponding employees. Establish records for bad conduct by government procurement suppliers according to the law, and prohibit suppliers with a record of bad conduct to participate in government procurement activities for a certain period of time. Perfect access and withdrawal mechanisms for the government procurement market, fully use the credit information provided by industry and commerce, taxation, finance, prosecutorial and other such departments to strengthen credit management of government procurement parties and corresponding personnel. Accelerate the construction of nationwide, uniform government procurement management and trading systems, raise the transparency of government procurement activities, and realize the uniform publication and sharing of credit information.

Credit construction in the area of tendering and bidding. Broaden the scope of information openness and sharing concerning tendering and bidding, establish credit evaluation indicators and evaluation standard systems covering tendering and bidding situations, and complete credit information openness and sharing systems for tendering and bidding. Further implement recording and publication rules for unlawful acts in the tendering and bidding process, and promote the perfection of joint reward and punishment mechanisms. Realize the interaction and interconnection of tendering and bidding contract implementation and other such credit information, as well as real-time exchange, integration and sharing, with the use of electronic tendering and bidding systems and public service platforms. Encourage market subjects to utilize basic credit information and third-party credit evaluation results, and make them into an important basis for inspecting the credentials of and evaluating bidders, deciding on contracts and signing contracts.

Credit construction in the area of traffic and transportation. Shape a traffic and transportation credit regulation system by integrating departmental regulations and local regulations and government rules. Perfect credit assessment standards, implement categorized assessment, supervision and management. Formulate assessment standards aimed at the different operational categories of public roads, railways, waterways, aviation, channels and other such transportation markets, strengthen credit assessment, evaluation, supervision and management, vigorously guide third-party bodies to participate in credit assessment and evaluation, progressively establish a comprehensive assessment and evaluation system that integrates traffic and transportation management bodies with social credit evaluation bodies, and that contains supervision, complaints and redress mechanisms. List all kinds of unlawful traffic and transportation acts into trust-breaking records. Encourage and support all work units to give preference to choose traffic and transportation enterprises and employees with high credit assessment ratings in areas such as purchasing traffic and transportation services, tendering and bidding, personnel employment, etc. It is necessary to strengthen supervision, management and punishment of trust-breaking enterprises and employees, and progressively establish cross-regional and cross-sectoral credit reward and punishment mechanisms.

Credit construction in the area of e-commerce. Build and complete e-commerce enterprise and client credit management and transaction credit evaluation systems, strengthen quality supervision by e-commerce enterprises of credit products they exploit and sell. Carry out the e-commerce subject identification rules, perfect website real-name systems. Strengthen website product quality inspection, strictly investigate and prosecute the production and sale of counterfeit goods, pyramid selling, false advertising, selling seconds as top-quality, violation of service contracts and other such swindling activities in the area of e-commerce. Attack inside-outside collusion, counterfeiting of flow rates and commercial reputation acts, and establish fixed-term sectoral prohibition rules for subjects breaking trust. Stimulate the broad application of e-commerce credit products in e-commerce. Launch trustworthiness authentication service work among e-commerce websites, spread the application of website trustworthiness symbols, and provide methods for e-commerce users to distinguish the real from the fake, and to recognize phishing websites.

Credit construction in the area of statistics. Launch sincere statistics commitment activities among enterprises, create a fine wind of sincere reporting being glorious and trust-breaking and reporting falsehoods being disgraceful. Perfect statistical sincerity evaluation standard systems. Establish and complete sincerity evaluation structures for enterprise statistics and sincerity files for statistical personnel. Strengthen law enforcement and inspection, straiten investigation and prosecution of fraudulent acts in the area of statistics, and establish structures to report and expose trust-breaking acts in statistics. Expand joint punishment of enterprises breaking trust concerning statistics. Enter the name list files of enterprises breaking trust in statistics and information about their breach of laws and regulations into the credit information systems of finance, industry and commerce and other such sectors and departments directly couple statistics credit records with enterprise finance, government subsidies, industry and commerce registration and other such measures, and realistically strengthen punishment and constraint of trust-breaking acts in statistics.

Credit construction in the intermediary services sector. Establish and perfect credit records and exposure systems for intermediary services bodies and their employees, and make them into an important basis for administrative market law enforcement departments’ carrying out categorized credit management. Focus on strengthening the management of notarization and arbitration, lawyers, accountancy, guarantees, authentication, inspection and monitoring, evaluation, accreditation, agency, brokerage, professional recommendation, consulting, trading and other such bodies, and explore the establishment of scientific and rational evaluation indicator systems, evaluation structures and work mechanisms.

Credit construction in the area of exhibitions and advertising. Promote sincere exhibition-running among exhibition organizing bodies, carry out the sincere service contract, establish structures to expose credit files and information about enterprises breaking laws and regulations, and broaden the application of credit services and products. Strengthen the construction of sincerity in the advertising sector, establish and complete categorized credit management structures for the advertising sector, attack all kinds of false advertising, give prominence to the responsibility of participants in advertising production and dissemination, and perfect trust-breaking punishment mechanisms for advertising subjects and elimination mechanisms for grave trust-breaking.

Constructing sincerity management systems in enterprises. Launch sincerity commitment activities in enterprises in all sectors, strengthen propaganda about enterprises that are models of sincerity, and exposure of model cases of trust-breaking, guide enterprises to strengthen their sense of social responsibility, strengthen credit self-discipline in production and operations, financial management and labour management, and improve the commercial credit ecology environment. Encourage enterprises to establish client files and launch client sincerity evaluation, enter sincere trading records of clients into receivable account management and credit issuance quota calculations for credit sales, establish scientific enterprises credit management workflows, prevent credit risks, and enhance enterprise’ comprehensive competitiveness. Strengthen enterprises’ sincerity and contract compliance in debt issuance, lending, guarantees and other activities concerning debts, liabilities, credit trading, production and operations. Encourage and support enterprises meeting conditions to establish credit supervisors. Encourage enterprises to establish internal staff sincerity assessment and evaluation structures. Strengthen the credit self-construction of enterprises in water supply, electricity supply, heating supply, gas supply, telecommunications, railways, aviation and other sectors that relate to the popular masses’ daily lives.

(3) Comprehensively move forward the construction of social sincerity.

Social sincerity is the basis for building the social credit system, only if there is mutual sincere treatment between members of society, and only if sincerity is fundamental, will it be possible to create harmonious and amicable interpersonal relationships, will it be possible to stimulate the progress of society and civilization, and realize social harmony, stability and a long period of peace and order.

Credit construction in the areas of healthcare, hygiene and birth control. Strengthen the construction of credit management and sincere sectoral work styles in healthcare and hygiene bodies. Establish a value view of sincerity and sincerity among skilful physicians, and persist in the professional integrity of benevolence in heart and deeds. Foster ideas about sincerity in work, sincerity in purchasing, sincerity in diagnosis and treatment, sincerity in fee charging and sincerity in healthcare protection, persist in reasonable examinations, reasonable use of medicine, reasonable treatment, reasonable fee charging and other such service norms in sincere healthcare, comprehensively establish publication systems for drug prices and healthcare service prices, launch foundational activities for sincere hospitals and sincere pharmacies, formulate credit evaluation indicators and standards for healthcare bodies and professional doctors, pharmacists, nurses and other healthcare personnel, and move forward with examination and evaluation of hospitals and the regular assessment of doctors, launch comprehensive evaluation of the medical deontology of healthcare personnel, punish unlawful and trust-breaking acts such as taking bribes, excessive treatments, etc., and establish a sincere healthcare service system. Accelerate the perfection of credit structures in the area of drug security, establish credit files for drug research, development, production and circulation enterprises. Vigorously launch sincerity commitment activities for drug safety with “sincerity is supreme, score successes with quality” as focus point, realistically raise credit supervision and management levels concerning drug security, strictly attack acts of counterfeiting and falsification, and guarantee that the popular masses use drugs in a safe and effective manner. Strengthen credit construction in the area of population and birth control, and launch credit information sharing work in population and birth control.

Credit construction in the area of social security. Establish comprehensive sincerity systems in areas such as disaster relief, aid, care for the elderly, social security, charity, lotteries, etc., attack all kinds of trust-breaking acts such as swindling and deception. Establish and complete sincerity systems in all segments, such as application, verification and withdrawal concerning the implementation of policies affecting people’s livelihoods, such as social aid, social housing, et., strengthen the verification of conditions for applications in policies concerning people’s livelihoods, strengthen dynamic management for social aid and supervision and management for the use of social housing, and put individuals breaking trust and violating regulations on a credit blacklist. Build information systems for the verification of residents’ and households’ economic situation, establish and perfect authentication mechanisms for low-income households, guarantee that social aid, social housing and other such policies concerning the people’s livelihood are carried out in a fair, just and healthy manner. establish and complete social security sincerity management systems, strengthen management in social security, strengthen labour guarantees and supervision of law enforcement in the area of social security, standardize benefits payment activities, strengthen punishment for acts violating regulations, cheating or deceiving insurance, all kinds of social security hospitals, pharmacies, industrial injury insurance-funded healthcare bodies and other social security service bodies as well as their work personnel, prevent and attack all kinds of insurance fraud. Further perfect social security finance management systems, raise the transparency of fee collection, management, payment and all other segments, promote the construction of sincerity systems in social insurance, standardize the payment acts of those participating in the insurance, and guarantee the safe operation of social security funds.

Credit construction in the area of labour and employment. Further implement and perfect the structure for sincerity and legal compliance concerning labour guarantees in enterprises, formulate rules to publicize major unlawful acts concerning labour guarantees to society. Establish systems to publicize unlawful acts by employing work units concerning wages payment arrears, and complete hierarchical credit evaluation rules for labour guarantees in employing work units. Standardize employment activities, strengthen management of the implementation and mediation of labour contracts, promote that enterprise vigorously launch activities to build harmonious labour relationships. Strengthen supervision and law enforcement lf labour guarantees, and strengthen the attack against unlawful acts. Strengthen the construction of sincerity in the human resources market, standardize the activities of professional intermediaries, attack all kinds of unlawful and trust-breaking activities of black intermediaries, black employers, etc.

Credit construction in the area of education and scientific research. Strengthen education about sincerity among educational and research personnel. Launch activities concerning sincerity commitments among teachers, and consciously accept supervision by the broad students, parents and all walks of society. Give rein to the influential role of teachers in education about sincerity and being a model of virtue for others. Strengthen education about sincerity among students, foster good habits of sincerity and trust-keeping, and lay the basis to raise the sincerity and quality of the entire nation. Explore the establishment of credit evaluation systems for education bodes and their employees, teachers and students, research bodies and scientific and technological communities, as well as research personnel, link up credit evaluation with examinations and student recruitment, student status management, grant of degrees and transcripts, research programme establishment, the professional evaluation of specialized technological position, appointment and employment, award selection, etc., strive to resolve the problems that schooling records are fabricated, dissertations are plagiarized, there is academic impropriety, there is fraud in examinations and student recruitment, etc.

Credit construction in the areas of culture, sports and tourism. With the support of the nationwide cultural market technological supervision, management and public service platforms, establish and complete credit information databases of cultural enterprise subjects, employees and cultural products in areas such as entertainment, performance, artworks, online culture, etc.; formulate management measures for sincerity in cultural markets according to the law, and strengthen dynamic supervision and management in cultural markets. Formulate credit employment standards for professional sports employees, establish rules for third-party evaluation of credit rankings of professional sports employees, professional sports clubs and intermediary organizations, move forward the broad utilization of corresponding credit information records and credit ranking in participating in or organizing professional sports matches, professional sports access and transfer sessions, etc. Formulate sincerity service norms for professional tourism personnel, establish open customer feedback and complaints recording structures for the tourism industry, establish third-party evaluation systems for credit ranking of travel companies, tourism destinations, hotels, restaurants, etc.

Credit construction in the area of intellectual property rights. Establish and complete intellectual property rights sincerity management structures, and publish credit evaluation rules for intellectual property protection. Focus on attacking infringements of intellectual property rights and the sale of fake and shoddy products, bring intellectual property rights infringement acts into trust-breaking records, strengthen the joint punishment of piracy, infringement and other such trust-breaking acts of intellectual property rights infringement, and raise the intellectual property rights protection consciousness of the entire society. Launch credit construction among intellectual property service bodies, explore the establishment of various kinds of standard-setting systems and sincerity evaluation systems for intellectual property rights services.

Credit construction in the areas of environmental protection and energy saving. Move forward the construction of state capabilities for environmental monitoring, information and statistics, strengthen the collection and integration of environmental protection credit data, realize coordination and information sharing in environmental protection work, perfect open catalogues of environmental information. Establish open structures for environmental management and survey information. Perfect liability investigation mechanisms for environmental assessment documents, establish sincerity file databases for environmental assessment bodies, their employees and evaluation experts, strengthen categorized supervision and management over credit assessment of environmental bodies, their employees and evaluation experts. Establish structures for enterprises to launch self-monitoring of the pollutants they emit, publish the situation of their pollution emissions as well as to discover and deal with sudden incidents. Establish credit evaluation structures for enterprises’ environmental behaviour, regularly publish evaluation results, and organize the carrying out of dynamic and categorized management, issue corresponding rewards, warnings and punishments on the basis of the enterprises’ credit rank. Perfect credit information sharing mechanisms for enterprises’ environmental activities, and strengthen links with banks, securities, insurance, commercial and other such departments. Strengthen the construction of capacity to report and analyse statistics and data on national energy use. Strengthen the assessment of focus work units’ responsibilities concerning their energy use targets, regularly publish assessment results, and research the establishment of credit evaluation mechanisms for focus work units. Strengthen energy auditing, energy saving evaluation and reporting mechanisms, as well as evaluation and supervision of employees’ credit. Research the carrying out of energy saving service companies’ credit evaluation work, and progressively publish credit evaluation results to society in a regular manner. Strengthen credit assessment and management concerning environmental project evaluation experts’ employment situations.

Sincerity construction in social organizations. With the support of legal person work unit information resource databases, accelerate the perfection of social organization registration and management information. Complete social organization information openness systems, guide social organizations to enhance the openness and transparency of their operations, and standardize the information openness behaviour of social organizations. Include sincerity construction content into the articles of association of all kinds of social organizations, strengthen the sincerity self-discipline of social organization, and raise the credibility of social organizations. Give rein to the role of social associations (commercial organizations) in the construction of sectoral credit, and strengthen members’ sincerity propaganda, education end training.

Credit construction among natural persons. Give prominence to the fundamental role of natural persons’ credit construction in the construction of a social credit system, with the support of national population information resource databases, establish and perfect credit records for natural persons in economic and social life, and realize that natural persons’ credit records are completely covered on a nationwide scale. Strengthen professional credit construction among focus groups, establish personal credit records among public servants, enterprises’ legal representatives, lawyers, accounting employees, registered accountants, statists employees, registered tax advisors, auditors, evaluators, authentication, monitoring and survey employees, securities and futures employees, high-level managers in publicly traded companies, insurance brokers, medical personnel, teachers, scientific research personnel, patent service employees, project managers, news and media employees, tourist guides, professional veterinarians and other such persons, and record their credit ranking. broaden the use of professional credit reports, and guide toe construction of professional ethics and behavioural norms.

Credit construction in the area of Internet applications and services. Forcefully move forward the construction of online sincerity, foster ideas of running the Internet according to the law and using the Internet in a sincere manner, progressively implement the online real-name system, perfect legal guarantees for the construction of online credit, forcefully move forward the construction of online credit supervision and management mechanisms. Establish online credit evaluation systems, evaluate the credit of the operational behaviour of Internet enterprises and the online behaviour of netizens, and record their credit rank. Establish network credit files covering Internet enterprises and individual netizens, vigorously move forward with the establishment of exchange and sharing mechanisms for online credit information and corresponding credit information in other areas, forcefully promote the broad application of online credit information in various areas of society. Establish online credit black list systems, list enterprises and individuals engaging in online swindles, rumourmongering, infringement of other persons’ lawful rights and interests and other grave acts of breaking trust online onto black lists, adopt measures against subjects listed on black lists including limitation of online conduct and barring sectoral access, and report them to corresponding departments for publication and exposure.

(4) Forcefully move forward the construction of judicial credibility.

Judicial credibility is an important content of the construction of a social credit system, it is a precondition to establish the judiciary’s authority, and is a baseline for social public justice.

Construction of judicial credibility. Increase the informatization levels of judicial trials, and realize interaction and interconnection of trail information between the four levels of the judiciary, covering the entire process of trial work. Move forward with information openness on the enforcement of cases, perfect joint enforcement mechanisms, and raise the enforcement rate of valid legal writs. Give rein to the functional role of trials to encourage sincere trading and advocate mutual trust and cooperation, punish commercial swindles, wilful violation or breach of contracts and other such trust-breaking acts, and lead a wind of sincerity and trust-keeping.

Construction of prosecutorial credibility. Further deepen prosecutorial openness, innovate methods and channels for prosecutorial openness, broadly hear the opinions of the masses, safeguard the popular masses’ right to know, right to participate, right of expression and right to supervision with regard to prosecutorial work. Continue to push forward “sunshine case-handling”, straiten management systems, strengthen internal and external supervision, establish and complete special investigation, synchronized supervision and responsibility prosecution mechanisms. Fully give rein to the functional role of legal supervision to strengthen investigation and prevention of workplace crime, and stimulate the construction of sincerity. Perfect systems to inquire about bribery cases, standardize and strengthen inquiry work management, establish and complete joint social mechanisms to inquire into and use bribery files.

Construction of credibility in the area of public security. Comprehensively carry out “sunshine law enforcement”, publish law enforcement case-handling rules, structures, procedures, time limits and other such information according to the law and in a timely manner, where there is information that should not be published to society because case-handling is still in progress, but relates to specific rights and obligations, or it is necessary that specific counterparts are aware of it, those specific counterparts shall be notified, or inquiry services shall be provided to those specific counterparts. Further strengthen exchange and sharing of population information with all localities, and all departments, perfect the construction of national population information resource databases. Enter citizens’ traffic safety and law-breaking situation into sincerity files, stimulate all members of society to raise their consciousness about traffic security. Regularly publish the evaluation results of fire safety in high-fire risk work units to society, and make them into an important reference basis to rank work units’ credit. Bring social work units’ respect for fire safety laws and regulations into sincerity management, and strengthen the subjective responsibility of social work units concerning fire safety.

The construction of credibility in the judicial and administrative systems. Further raise the standardization and institutionalization levels of management of prisons, drug rehabilitation facilities, and community correction bodies, safeguard the lawful rights and interests of persons serving sentences, persons rehabilitating from drug use, and persons in community correction. Forcefully move forward judicial and administrative information openness, further standardize and innovate information management and disclosure methods concerning lawyers, notaries, grassroots legal services, legal aid, judicial examinations, judicial expert advice, etc., and guarantee the popular masses’ right to know.

Credit construction among judicial law enforcement and employed personnel. Deepen the reform of the judicial system and work mechanisms, move forward the construction of law enforcement standardization, straiten law enforcement procedures, persist in the fact that laws must be obeyed, law-breaking must be punished and everyone is equal according to the law, raise the scientific, institutionalization and standardization levels of judicial work. Fully give rein to the supervisory role of People’s Congresses, Consultative Conferences and the social public over judicial work, perfect mutual supervision and restraint mechanisms between judicial bodies, strengthen internal supervision in judicial bodies, and realize that supervision stimulates fairness, justice and credibility.

III, Strengthen the construction of sincerity education and a sincerity culture

The construction of sincerity education and a sincerity culture are major channels to lead the sincerity and self-discipline members of society, and enhance the moral cultivation of the members of society, and is an important content of the construction of the Socialist core value system.

(1) Popularize sincerity education.

With constructing the Socialist core value system, fostering and practicing the Socialist core value view as the foundation, bring sincerity education into the entire process of civil virtue construction and spiritual civilization construction. Move forward the civil virtue construction project, strengthen education about social morals, professional ethics, household virtue and individual morality, inherit the fine traditional virtues of China, carry forward the new winds of the times, and shape a fine trend of “seeing sincerity and trust-keeping as glorious, and seeing the loss of integrity to temptation and gains as shameful” across the entire society.

Further enhance the content of sincerity education in all levels and all kinds of education and training. Forcefully launch activities to let universal education and propaganda about credit enter enterprises, enter classrooms, enter communities, enter villages and enter households.

Build and use morality classrooms well, and advocate value views and moral norms of patriotism, respecting labour, sincerity, amity, etc. Launch mass activities for moral judgment, conduct analysis and evaluation of instances where there was a lack of sincerity and credit was not stressed, and guide people towards sincerity and trust-keeping, morality and upholding courtesy.

(2) Strengthen the construction of a sincerity culture.

Carry forward a culture of sincerity With members of society as targets, with sincerity propaganda as method and with sincerity education as carrier, forcefully advocate sincerity and ethical norms, carry forward the positive and upward, sincere and trust-keeping traditional culture of the Chinese nation and the contract spirit of the modern market economy, and shape social morals of venerating sincerity and practicing sincerity.

Establish models of sincerity. Fully give rein to the propaganda and guiding roles of television, radio, newspapers, the Internet and other such media, integrate the selection of models of virtues and all kinds of sectoral sincerity construction activities, establish social credit models, ensure that members of society have examples to learn from, goals to pursue and that sincerity and trust-keeping become conscious pursuits of the entire society.

Deeply launch topical activities concerning sincerity. Organize pubic interest activities such as the “Sincerity Activity Week” “Quality Month”, “Safe Production Month”, “Sincere Trading Propaganda Week”, the “5 March” Lei Feng Activity Day, the “15 March” International Consumer Rights Protection Day, the “14 June” Credit Record Care Day, the “4 December” National Legal System Propaganda Day, etc., in a paced and planned manner, give prominence to the topic of sincerity, create a social atmosphere of sincerity and harmony.

Forcefully launch special campaigns in focus sectors and areas on the question of sincerity. Deeply launch specialized education and campaign activities concerning prominent issues in the area of morality, launch special campaigns targeting sectors and areas where sincerity is prominently lacking and sincerity building is urgently necessary, persist in correcting unhealthy trends and evil practices of abusing power for personal gain, lying and cheating, forgetting integrity when tempted by gains, benefiting oneself at others’ expense, etc., and establish trends of sectoral sincerity and integrity.

(3) Accelerate the training of specialized credit talents.

Strengthen the construction of the scholarly specialization of credit management. List credit management as an emerging and focus discipline that is urgently needed for the reform of the national economic system and the development of social governance, support higher education institutes meeting conditions to establish credit management majors and to set up corresponding courses, and establish credit management research streams in graduate student programmes. Launch research in credit theory, credit management, credit technology, credit standards, credit policy and other such areas.

Strengthen professional credit management training and specialized evaluation. Establish and complete professional credit management training and specialized evaluation structures. Expand professional qualification training for credit management, train specialized forces for credit management. Stimulate and strengthen the circulation and training of credit employees and credit management personnel, to provide human resource support for the construction of a social credit system.

IV, Accelerate the construction and application of credit information systems

Completing credit records of members of society is a basic requirement for the construction of a social credit system. Giving rein to the strengths and roles of sectors, localities and markets, accelerating the construction of the social credit system, and perfecting the recording, integration and application of credit information are the basis and the preconditions for shaping mechanisms to encourage trust-keeping and punish trust-breaking.

(1) The construction of sectoral credit information systems.

Strengthen credit record construction in focus areas. Focus on the areas of industry and commerce, tax payment, pricing, import and export, production safety, product quality, environmental protection, food and drugs, medicine and healthcare, intellectual property rights, logistical services, project construction, e-commerce, traffic and transportation, contract fulfilment, human resources, social security, education and research, and perfect sectoral credit record and employee credit files.

Establish sectoral credit information databases. All departments must make date standardization and application standardization into principles, rely on the State’s various major informatization projects, integrate intra-sectoral credit information resources, ensure the electronic storage of credit records, accelerate the construction of credit information systems, and accelerate the interconnection and interactivity of credit information between sectors. All sectors must respectively take responsibility for the organization and publication of credit information within those sectors.

(2) The construction of local information systems.

Accelerate the integration of government affairs credit information. All localities must record, perfect and integrate the credit information generated in the process of carrying out public management duties by all departments and work units in that locality, shape uniform credit information sharing platforms, and provide convenient ways for enterprises, individuals and social credit investigation bodies to consult government affairs credit information.

Strengthen the application of credit information within localities. All localities must formulate government affairs credit information openness catalogues, and shape information openness supervision systems. Forcefully move forward with government affairs credit information exchange and sharing of all departments and all localities within that locality, strengthen the application of credit information in public management, and raise operational efficiency.

(3) The construction of credit investigation systems.

Accelerate the construction of credit investigation systems. Credit investigation bodies launching credit investigation operation shall build credit investigation systems targeting enterprise and undertaking work units as well as other social organizations and individuals, collect, arrange, store and process credit information of enterprise and undertaking work units and other social organizations, as well as individuals, according to the law, and adopt reasonable measures to ensure the accuracy of credit information. All localities and all sectors must support the establishment of credit investigation systems by credit investigation bodies.

Externally provide specialized credit investigation services. Credit investigation bodies must, on the basis of market demands, externally provide specialized credit investigation services, to move credit service product innovation forward in an orderly manner. Establish, complete and strictly implement rules and structures for internal risk prevention, avoidance of conflicts of interests and to ensure information security, provide convenient, rapid and efficient credit information services to users, and further broaden the application of credit reports in many areas, including the banking sector, the securities sector, the insurance sector, administrative law enforcement by government departments, etc.

(4) The construction of uniform credit investigation platforms in the financial sector.

Perfect basic databases for financial credit information. Continue to move forward with the construction of basic databases for financial credit information, enhance data quality, perfect systemic functions, strengthen management over the secure operations of systems, further expand the coverage scope of credit reports, and enhance external service levels of systems.

Promote the construction of uniform credit investigation platforms in the financial sector. Continue to promote the linkage of credit information systems between financial management departments for banks, securities, insurance, foreign exchange, etc., promote the construction of uniform credit investigation platforms in the financial sector, and move forward credit information exchange and sharing between financial supervision and management departments.

(5) Move forward credit information exchange and sharing.

Progressively move forward government affairs credit information exchange and sharing. All localities and all sectors must establish credit information exchange and sharing mechanisms, comprehensively plan the use of existing credit information systems and infrastructure, move forward the interconnection and interactivity of various credit information systems and the exchange and sharing of credit information, and progressively create credit information networks that cover all information subjects, all credit information categories, and all regions nationwide, in a manner that is guided by needs, and under the preconditions of protecting privacy, clarifying responsibilities and ensuring the timeliness and accuracy of data. All sectors’ controlling departments must conduct categorized and hierarchical management of credit information and determine their powers of inquiry, in inquiry concerning special cases, a special application must be made.

Move forward information exchange and sharing between the government affairs credit information system and credit investigation systems. Give rein to the role of market incentive mechanisms to encourage social finance bodies to strengthen integration with open government affairs credit information and non-government affairs credit information, to establish credit investigation service and product systems aimed at different counterparts, which satisfy the credit investigation needs of a multi-layered, diverse and specialized society.

V, Perfect operational mechanisms for the social credit system with rewards as the focus point.

Operational mechanisms are the institutional basis to guarantee the coordinated operation of all parts of the social credit system. In particular, mechanisms encouraging trust-keeping and punishing breach of trust directly play a role in the credit activities of all social subjects, and are the core mechanisms for the operation of the social credit system.

(1) Build mechanisms to incentivise trust-keeping and punish trust-breaking.

Strengthen rewards and incentives for subjects to keep trust. Expand rewards and propaganda strength for trust-keeping acts. Grant rewards to enterprises and model individuals keeping trust according to regulations, broadly propagate them through news media, and forge a public opinion environment that trust-keeping is glorious. Development and reform, finance, banking, environmental protection, housing and urban construction, traffic and transportation, commercial, industrial, fiscal, quality inspection, security supervision, customs, intellectual property rights and other such departments must, in the process of market supervision and public service, deepen the application of credit information and credit products, and extent “green path” support and incentive mechanisms, such as preferential management, simplifying procedures, etc., to those keeping trust.

Strengthen restraint and punishment of subjects breaking trust. Strengthen administrative supervision, restraint and punishment. On the basis of the current administrative punishment measures, complete punishment structures for breach of trust, establish blacklist systems and market withdrawal mechanisms in all sectors. Promote all levels’ People’s Governments to implement categorized credit management implement categorized credit supervision and management concerning market supervision and management, public service market access, qualification accreditation, administrative examination and approval, policy support and other such areas, integrate the categories and levels of supervision and management counterparts to ensure that those breaking trust are punished. Progressively establish systems for credit commitment by administrative approval applicants, and launch inspections of applicants’ credit, ensure that applicants have credit records in government-recommended credit investigation bodies, coordinate with credit investigation bodies in launching credit information collection work. Promote the creation of marketized constraint and punishment. Formulate normative credit evaluation standard systems and evaluation methods, perfect systems to record and expose information concerning trust-breaking, ensure that hose breaking trust are constrained in their market interactions. Promote the creation of sectoral constraints and punishments. Formulate sectoral self-discipline norms through sectoral associations and supervise members in obeying them. Implement warning, intra-sectoral reporting and criticism, open condemnation and other such punitive measures against those breaking trust in violation of regulations, according to the gravity of the circumstances, both for corporate members and individuals members. Promote the creation of socialized constraint and punishment. Perfect social public opinion supervision mechanisms, strengthen disclosure and exposure of trust-breaking acts, give rein to the role of the masses in appraisal, discussion, criticism and reports, shape social deterrence through social moral condemnation, and censure trust-breaking acts of members of society.

Establish rewarded reporting systems for acts of breach of trust. Realistically implement rewards for reporting individuals, and protect the lawful rights and interests of reporting individuals.

Establish joint credit reward and punishment mechanisms across multiple departments and regions. Through credit information exchange and sharing, realize credit reward alliances across multiple departments and regions, ensure that those keeping trust receive benefit in all respect, and those breaking trust meet with difficulty at every step.

(2) establishing and completing legal, regulatory and standards systems for credit.

Perfect legal and regulatory systems for credit. Move credit legislation work forward, ensure there are laws to rely on for credit information collection, consulting, use, exchange and interaction, credit information security, the protection of subjects’ rights and interests, etc. Publish supplementary rules and implementation regulations for the “Credit Investigation Management Regulations, establish systems to process objections, handle complaints and punish liability for infringement.

Move forward the construction of sectoral, departmental and local credit structures. All localities and all departments must, according to the needs of sectoral credit system construction within their own localities and departments, formulate regulatory structures for regional or sectoral credit construction, clarify the responsibilities of credit information recording subjects, guarantee the objectivity, truthfulness, accuracy and timely updating of credit information, perfect credit information sharing and openness systems, promote the orderly development and use of credit information resources.

Establish categorized credit information management systems. Formulate credit information catalogues, determine the categories of credit information, according to the attributes of credit information, and in integration with the protection of personal privacy and commercial secrets, move categorized management of credit information forward according to the law, in segments such as collection, sharing, use, openness, etc. Enhance investigation and prosecution of the sale of personal privacy and commercial secrets.

Accelerate he construction of a credit information standard systems. Formulate nationwide uniform credit information collection and categorized management standards, and unify the credit indicator catalogue and construction standards.

Establish uniform social credit coding systems. Establish uniform social credit coding systems for natural persons, legal persons and other organizations. Perfect corresponding structures and standards, and promote the broad use of uniform social credit codes in economic and social activities.

(3) Foster and standardize credit service markets.

Develop various kinds of credit service structures. Progressively establish credit service organization systems where public credit service bodies and social credit service bodies interact and mutually supplement each other, at multiple levels and in all directions in a manner where basic credit information services and value-added services complement each other.

Move forward and standardize the development of a credit rating industry. Foster and develop local rating bodies, and strengthen the international competitiveness of our country’s rating bodies. Standardize and develop a credit rating market, raise the overall credibility of the credit rating industry. Explore and innovate double rating and re-rating systems. Encourage our country’s rating bodies to participate in international competition and the formulation of international standards, and strengthen coordination and cooperation with credit rating bodies in other countries.

Promote the broad utilization of credit service products. Expand the scope of application of credit service products, and expand the application of credit service products in social governance and market exchange. Encourage credit service product research, development and innovation, and promote the development of credit insurance, credit guarantee, commercial factoring, performance guarantees, credit management consulting and training and other such credit service activities.

Establish orderly and open government credit information systems. Determine the open categories and basic catalogues for governmental credit information, broaden government credit information openness to society in an orderly manner, and optimize the development environment for credit investigation, credit rating, credit management, and other such industries.

Perfect credit service market supervision and management systems. On the basis of the different characteristics of the activities of credit service markets and bodies, implement categorized supervision and management according to the law, perfect supervision and management systems, clarify supervision and management duties and responsibilities, realistically safeguard market order. Promote the formulation of legal systems concerning credit service activities, establish credit service bodies access and withdrawal mechanisms, realize that employment qualification assessment is open and transparent, further perfect professional norms for credit services, and stimulate the healthy development of the credit service sector.

Promote the perfection of legal person governance for credit service bodies. Strengthen internal control in credit service bodies, perfect constraining mechanisms, improve the quality of credit services.

Strengthen the construction of credit for credit service bodies themselves. Credit service bodies must establish behavioural norms, strengthen standards and management, raise service quality, persist in fairness and independence, and raise their credibility. All kinds of credit service bodies are encouraged to set up chief credit supervision officers, and to strengthen their credit management.

Strengthen self-discipline in credit service industries. Promote the establishment of self-disciplinary organizations for the credit service industry, set up behavioural norms and professional standards within organizations for credit service bodies and employees, strengthen self-restraint and comprehensively improve the sincerity levels of credit service bodies.

(4) Protect the rights and interest of credit information subjects.

Complete protection mechanisms for the rights and interests of information credit subjects. Fully give rein to the role of administrative supervision, sectoral self-discipline and social supervision in protecting the rights and individuals of credit information subjects, comprehensively use legal, economic, administrative and other such measures to realistically protect the rights and interests of credit information subjects. Strengthen guidance and education of credit information subjects, incessantly strengthen their consciousness about upholding their own lawful rights and interests.

Establish self-correction and active self-renewal social incentive and care mechanisms. With establishing educational mechanisms aimed at trust-breaking acts by minors as a focus point, provide appropriate protection to members of society who regret and have corrected past light acts of trust-breaking, and shape incentive mechanisms for trust-keeping and advancement.

Establish credit information infringement liability investigation mechanisms. Formulate management rules and operational regulations for processing objections, handling complaints and managing litigation concerning credit information. Further strengthen law enforcement, and strictly punish the leaking of State secrets or commercial secrets, or the infringement of personal privacy by credit service bodies and other such unlawful acts according to the law. Strengthen the role of social supervision through exposing various kinds of acts violating information subjects’ rights and interests through all kinds of media.

(5) Strengthen credit information security management.

Complete credit information security management systems. Perfect credit information protection and online trust systems, establish and complete credit information security supervision systems. Strengthen credit information security supervision and inspection, launch credit information security risk assessment, implement hierarchical credit information security protection. Launch credit information security authentication, strengthen credit information service system security management. Establish and perfect credit information security emergency response handling mechanisms. Strengthen credit information security infrastructure construction.

Strengthen credit service bodies’ internal credit information security management. Strengthen the ability of credit service bodies to protect security, expand security guarantees, technological research and development and financial input, build credit information security guarantee systems with high starting points and high standards. Formulate and implement regulatory structures for credit information gathering, ordering, processing,, storage, usage, and other such areas.

VI, Establishing implementation and support systems

(1) Strengthening responsibility and implementation.

All localities and all departments must unify thoughts, and according to the general requirements of this Planning Outline, establish Planning Outline Promotion Small Groups, to formulate concrete implementation plans on the basis of the division of work and responsibility, and the work reality.

All localities and all departments must regularly conduct a summary and evaluation of the situation of the construction of a social credit system in their localities and corresponding sectors, timely discover problems and put forward solutions for improvement.

Localities, departments and work units with prominent achievements in social credit system construction will be commended according to regulations. Responsible personnel within localities, departments and work units that do not move matters forward forcefully or where many acts of untruthfulness occur will be held to administrative accountability according to regulations.

(2) Expanding policy support.

All levels’ People’s Governments must, on the basis of the needs of social credit system construction, bring expenses that should be borne by governments into their financial budget, in order to guarantee them. Expand financial support for the construction of credit infrastructure, innovation and demonstration project in focus areas, etc.

All localities and all departments are encouraged to integrate the deployment of the Planning Outline with their own work reality, take the lead and engage in pioneering trials in the area of social credit system construction innovation and demonstration, and provide support in government budgets, financial arrangements and other such areas.

(3) Implementing specific projects.

The Government Affairs Information Openness Project. Deeply implement the “Government Information Openness Regulations of the People’s Republic of China”, conduct categorized management according to the principles of active openness and openness on request, realistically expand the strength of government affairs openness, and establish an open and transparent government image.

The Rural Credit System Construction Project. Establish credit files for peasant households, farms, peasant cooperatives, the fallow agricultural sector, agricultural production and processing enterprises and other such rural members of society, and ram down a basis for the construction of a rural credit system. Develop credit account, credit village and credit town (township) creation activities, deeply move youth credit demonstration household work forward, give rein to the role of model examples, ensure that peasants receive education and tangible benefits through participation, and raise their credit awareness through practice. Move forward with the construction of credit construction in agricultural product production, processing and distribution enterprises, the fallow agricultural sector and other such agriculture-related enterprises. Establish and complete mutual peasant credit guarantee systems, move forward and develop rural insurances, perfect village credit guarantee systems.

The Small and Micro-Enterprise Credit System Construction Project. Establish and complete a credit recording and evaluation systems suited to the characteristics of small and micro-enterprises, perfect credit information consulting and sharing service networks for small and micro-enterprises, and regional small and micro enterprise credit records. Guide all kinds of credit service organs to provide information services to small and micro enterprises, innovate concentrated credit service methods for small and micro enterprises, encourage the creation of varied sincerity propaganda and training activities for small and micro enterprises, create a good credit environment for small and micro enterprises to raise funds, and for their healthy development.

(4) Promoting examples of innovation.

Comprehensive demonstrations of local credit construction. Demonstration regions are to take the lead in integrating credit information in all local departments and work units, creating uniform credit information sharing platforms, and open these up to society in an orderly manner and according to the law. All departments in demonstration regions are to strengthen the use of credit information and credit products in the process of carrying out economic and social management, and providing public services, and are to provide essential conditions for government management and service. Establish and complete social credit reward and punishment mechanisms, and ensure that those keeping trust are incentivized and rewarded, and those breaking trust are restrained and sanctioned. Publicize model acts of trust-breaking violating laws and regulations, and strengthen the attack against grave acts of trust-breaking. Explore the establishment of local government credit evaluation standards and methods, and try out local government comprehensive credit evaluation in issuing local government bonds and other such credit and finance activities conforming to the provisions of laws and regulations

Cooperative demonstrations of regional credit construction. Explore the establishment of regional interlinked credit mechanisms, carry out regional credit system construction and innovation trials, move forward with credit information exchange and sharing, realize interregional credit rewards and punishments, and optimize the regional credit environment.

Applied credit information demonstrations in focus areas and sectors. Try out the implementation of the credit reporting system in food security, environmental protection, production safety, product quality, project construction, e-commerce, negotiable securities and futures, funding guarantees, government procurement, tendering and budding and other such areas.

(5) Complete organizational guarantees.

Perfect organizational coordinating mechanisms. Perfect interministerial joint conference systems for the construction of the social credit system, fully give rein to its coordinating and planning role, strengthen guidance, supervision and inspection of the work of all localities and all departments in constructing a social credit system. Complete organizational bodies, all localities and departments must establish special bodies to take responsibility for promoting the construction of a social credit system. Establish nationwide credit associations, strengthen sectoral self-discipline, and fully give rein to the role of all kinds of social organizations in moving forwards the construction of a social credit system.

Build local government promotion mechanisms. All levels’ local People’s Governments must put the construction of a social credit system on the important matters agenda, move forward the construction of government affairs sincerity, commercial sincerity, social sincerity and judicial credibility, strengthen supervision, strengthen assessment, and make the construction of a social credit system into an important element of assessing work objectives and tasks, and evaluating officials’ career achievements.

Establish work reporting and coordination systems. The interministerial joint conference for the construction of a social credit system is to regularly convene work coordination meetings, report the situation of work progress, and timely research and resolve major problems in the construction of a social credit system.





根据党的十八大提出的“加强政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设”,党的十八届三中全会提出的“建立健全社会征信体系,褒扬诚信,惩戒失信”,《中共中央 国务院关于加强和创新社会管理的意见》提出的“建立健全社会诚信制度”,以及《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》(以下简称“十二五”规划纲要)提出的“加快社会信用体系建设”的总体要求,制定本规划纲要。规划期为2014—2020年。

Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China (Revision Draft, Submission Version)

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National Copyright Administration

Revision Draft, Submission Version

Chapter I: General Principles

Chapter II: Copyright

Section I: Copyright holders and their rights

Section II: Copyright entitlement

Section III: The term of protection of copyright

Chapter III: Related rights

Section I: Publishers

Section II: Performers

Section III: Audio producers

Section IV: Radio stations and television stations

Chapter IV: The limitations of rights

Chapter V: The exercise of rights

Section I: Copyright and related right contracts

Section II: Collective copyright management

Chapter VI: Technological protection measures and rights management information

Chapter VII: The protection of rights

Chapter VIII: Supplementary provisions

Chapter I: General provisions Read the rest of this entry »

Some Opinions concerning Stimulating Information Consumption and Expanding Internal Demand

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GF No. (2013)23

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate organs:

In recent years, information technology innovation on a global scale has incessantly accelerated, and new products, new services and new business models in the information area have emerged in large numbers, incessantly stimulating new consumption demands, and becoming consumption hot sports that become more dynamic every day. The scale of our country’s market is huge, and it is currently in a stage where residents’ consumption rises and informatization, industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization are accelerating, merging and developing, information consumption has a good development basis and huge development potential. At the same time, our country’s information consumption faces such problems as the fact that basic infrastructure support capacity remains to be upgraded, product and service innovation capacity is weak, market access thresholds are high, supplementary policies are incomplete, sectoral barriers are grave, structures and mechanisms are not adapted, etc., it is urgently necessary to adopt measures to resolve these. Accelerating and stimulating information consumption is able to effectively drive demand, foster new economic growth points, stimulate consumption upgrading, industrial transformation and an improvement in people’s livelihoods, it is an important measure that both benefits the present and benefits the long term, it stabilizes growth and adjusts structures. In order to accelerate and promote the sustained growth of information consumption, hereby, the following Opinions are put forward: Read the rest of this entry »

Notice concerning Printing and Issuing the Provisions on the Main Duties, Internal Structuring and Personnel Allocation of the General Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television

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GBF No. (2013)76

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council Ministries and Commissions, all directly subordinate organs:

The “Provisions on the Main Duties, Internal Structuring and Personnel Allocation of the General Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television” have been approved by the State Council and are hereby printed and issued.

State Council General Office

11 July 2013 Read the rest of this entry »